Over the past 10 years, human resource and organizational development professionals have generated a lot of interest in the notion of competencies as a key element and measure of human performance. Competencies are becoming a frequently-used and written-about vehicle for organizational application such as
* Defining the factors for success in jobs (i.e., work) and work roles within the organization * Assessing the current performance and future development needs of persons holding jobs * Mapping Succession Possibilities for employees within the organization * Assigning Compensation grades and levels to particular jobs and roles * Selecting applicants for open positions, using competency-based interviewing techniques
Competencies include the collection of success factors necessary for achieving important results in a specific job or work role in a particular organization. Success factors are combinations of knowledge, skills, and attributes (more historically called "KSA's") that are described in terms of specific behaviors, and are demonstrated by superior performers in those jobs or work roles. Attributes include: personal characteristics, traits, motives, values or ways of thinking that impact an individual's behavior.
Competence is a standardized requirement for an individual to properly perform a specific job. It encompasses a combination of knowledge, skills and behavior utilized to improve performance. More generally, competence is the state or quality of being adequately or well qualified, having the ability to perform a specific role. For instance, management competency includes the traits of systems thinking and emotional intelligence, and skills in influence and negotiation. A person possesses a competence as long as the skills, abilities, and knowledge that constitute that competence are a part of them, enabling the person to perform effective action within a certain workplace environment. Therefore, one might not lose knowledge, a skill, or an ability, but still lose a competence if what is needed to do a job well changes. COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT
Competency assessment involves the measurement of an individual's competencies. Measures include cognitive ability tests, bio data instruments, structured interviews, job knowledge tests, diagnostic and promotion tests, and measures of customer service, and social skills. With the advent of increased agency responsibility for staffing decisions, valid personnel selection assessments are more critical than ever. The Office of Personnel Management's research and development staff are experts in producing selection methods that can be tailored to specific agency needs. Competencies are a combination of several entities, motives, traits, self-concepts, attitudes/values, skills and abilities all of which can differentiate superior performers from average performers. Several competency models have developed by HR consultant and experts today. A TYPICAL COMPETENCY ASSESSMENT PROCESS
These advanced models capture a host of managerial competencies / skills including the administrative, communicational, interpersonal, motivational, strategic, entrepreneurial as well as leadership self management and thinking skills. Competency assessment can be done by an individual without input from others (self assessment), by themselves and other person (e.g.) themselves and their manager) (or) by themselves and a collection of several other persons. Rating can be done either formally or informally as a combination of both. Competency assessment in an organization setting is usually done in formal ways and usually involves atleast 2 raters (eg) the employee and their boss) to ensure there are atleast 2 perspectives for evaluating the individual’s use of the competencies. In most cases the competency list is converted to a survey questionnaire and respondents to the rating process are asked to rate how the individual employee...
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