A History of Western Political Thought is an energetic, engaged and lucid account of the most important political thinkers and the enduring themes of the last two and a half millennia. J.S.McClelland traces the development and consolidation of a tradition of Western political thought from Ancient Greece through to the development of the modern state, the American Enlightenment, the rise of liberalism and the very different reactions it engendered. He discusses how a tradition beginning before Socrates might be said to have played itself out in the second half of the twentieth century. McClelland’s aim is to tell a complete story: his definition of politics encompasses both power wielded from above and power threatened from below, and the sustained pursuit of this theme leads him to present an original and often controversial view of the theorists of the received canon and to add to that canon some writers he feels have been neglected unjustly. A History of Western Political Thought will inform, challenge, provoke and entertain any reader interested in what people have had to say about politics in the last two and half thousand years, and why it matters. J.S.McClelland is Senior Lecturer in Politics at the University of Nottingham. He has held visiting posts at the University of Indiana at Bloomington and Sacramento State University, California. His previous publications include The French Right: From De Maistre to Maurras and The Crowd: From Plato to Canetti.
A HISTORY OF WESTERN POLITICAL THOUGHT
London and New York
First published 1996 by Routledge 11 New Fetter Lane, London EC4P 4EE Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 29 West 35th Street, New York, NY 10001 Routledge is an International Thomson Publishing Company This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk. © 1996 J.S.McClelland All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book has been requested ISBN 0-203-98074-3 Master e-book ISBN
ISBN 0-415-11961-8 (hbk) ISBN 0-415-11962-6 (pbk)
List of biographies Foreword
Part I The Greeks 1 ANCIENT GREEK POLITICAL THOUGHT 2 SOCRATES AND PLATO 3 THE GUARDIANS OF THE STATE AND JUSTICE 4 ARISTOTLE AND THE SCIENCE OF POLITICS Part II Romans and Roman Catholics 5 FROM POLIS TO COSMOPOLIS 6 CHRISTIAN COSMOPOLITANISM: ST AUGUSTINE’S CITY OF GOD 7 CHRISTENDOM AND ITS LAW: ST THOMAS AQUINAS Part III Romans and humanists: the reinvention of sovereignty 8 THE REINVENTION OF SOVEREIGNTY: MARSILIUS OF PADUA 9 MACHIAVELLI: THE PRINCE AND THE VIRTUOUS REPUBLIC Part IV The theory of the social contract 10 THE RISE AND EXTRAORDINARY PERSISTENCE OF THE THEORY OF 163 THE SOCIAL CONTRACT 11 SOCIAL CONTRACT I: THE HOBBESIAN VERSION 182 12 SOCIAL CONTRACT II: THE LOCKIAN VERSION 13 SOCIAL CONTRACT III: THE ROUSSEAUIST VERSION Part V Enlightenment and the development of the modern state 14 THE MODERNITY OF THE MODERN STATE 265 219 238 123 142 67 87 104 3 16 29 48
15 THE POLITICS OF ENLIGHTENMENT 16 ENLIGHTENMENT AND GOVERNMENT THROUGH LAW: MONTESQUIEU 17 THE AMERICAN ENLIGHTENMENT: JEFFERSON, CRÈVECOEUR, HAMILTON, JAY, MADISON, PAINE 18 THE LIMITATIONS OF ENLIGHTENMENT: HUME AND BURKE Part VI The rise of liberalism 19 THE RISE OF LIBERALISM 20 LIBERALISM COMES OF AGE: BENTHAM AND JOHN...