Wildlife Conservation in India

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  • Topic: India, Tiger reserves of India, Tiger
  • Pages : 6 (1531 words )
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  • Published : May 30, 2013
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WILDLIFE
Wildlife means all the flora and fauna, which are not domesticated by humans. It includes animals, plants and microorganisms. The term wild life generally gives the impression of large and ferocious animals living in the jungle or waters such as lions and tigers, crocodiles and rhinoceros. Wild life refers to any living organism in its natural habitat. It includes all plants, animals and microorganisms other than animals domesticated and cultivated plants. The majestic lion, the grateful yet fearsome tiger, unproductive leopard, powerful elephant, the nimble deer, attractive antelope, the picturesque peafowl, the gorgeous pelican, the beautiful parakeets, wood-pecker and the elegant flamingo are some of these of which any country might be proud. There are 312 species of mammals, 1175 species of birds, 399 species of reptiles, 60000 species of insects and 181 species of amphibians and 46610 species of plants. Over the past 2000 years about 106 species of animals and about 140 species of birds have become extinct because of climate and geographic changes and also by over hunting by man for food, medicine, fur and many other reasons. According to ecologist more than 600 species of animals and birds are expected to be extinct if not protected by wildlife management. Wildlife in India

The Wildlife in India is a mix of species of different types of organisms.[1] Apart from a handful of the major farm animals such as cows, buffaloes, goats, poultry and sheep, India has an amazingly wide variety of animals native to the country. It is home to tigers, lions,Leopards,pythons, wolves, foxes, bears, crocodiles, rhinoceroses,camels, wild dogs, monkeys, snakes, antelope species, deer species, varieties of bison and not to mention the mighty Asian elephant. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is preserved in 89 national parks, 14 Bio reserves and 400+ wildlife sanctuaries across the country.India has some of the most biodiverse regions of the world and hosts three of the world’s 34 biodiversity hotspots – or treasure-houses – that is the Western Ghats, the Eastern Himalayas and Indo- Burma.[2] Since India is home to a number of rare and threatened animal species, wildlife management in the country is essential to preserve these species.[3] According to one study, India along with 17 mega diverse countries is home to about 60-70% of the world's biodiversity.[4]

Peninsular India's subsequent movement towards, and collision with, the Laurasian landmass set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic change 20 million years ago caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.[9] Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya.[8] As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, contrasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of amphibians.[5] Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species.[10] These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suffered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle. India is a home to rich and diverse wildlife tours because of her wide range of climate, soil, weather and other such factors. Owing to such diversity, equal number of rare as well as threatened animals and plants are found that need to be protected. This leads to the need of much greater wildlife conservation efforts in India. As per the survey India is a home to about 60-70% of the total biodiversity found across the world and about 33% of plant species are endemic. There are 172, or 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species in India. Under this comes the Asiatic Lion, the Indian white-rumped vultures and the Bengal Tiger. This further enforces the need of right wildlife conservation efforts in...
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