Associate Program Material
Answer the following in at least 100 words:
1. Describe the structure of DNA.
* There has been a major effort in the history of science to figure out the structure of DNA. Having a double standard helix DNA has a uniform a diameter in its entire length. The helixes fit within a defined three dimensional space because they are both right handed. Polynucleotide chains are held together by the bases in the (center) hydrogen bonding with the bases on the opposite polynucleotide. Two polynucleotides are form around the outside of the helix with the bases extending into the center. Known as complementary base pairing; hydrogen bonding is a very specific process. Scientist had identified all the atoms and knew how they were bound together. What was not understood was the capacity to store genetic information, copy it and pass it from generation to generation, and the specific three dimensional arrangements of atoms that gave DNA its unique proprieties.
2. How does an organism’s genotype determine its phenotype? *
The phenotype is an organism in a class to which that organism belongs as determined by the description of the physical and behavioral characteristics of the organism for example the size and shape, its metabolic activities, and its pattern of movement. Physical traits arise from the action of a wide variety of proteins. For example structural protein helps make up the body of an organism, and enzymes, catalyze and metabolic activities. The genotype is a class to which that organisms belong as determine by the description of the actual physical material made-up of DNA that was passed to the organism by its parents at the organism conception. An organism genotype is its genetic makeup is the sequence of nucleotide based on its DNA. An example of genotype determining its phenotype can be seen in eye color. If both parents have blue eyes the blue eye trait is...
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