Week 1: an Introduction to Human Anatomy & Physiology

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WEEK 1: AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function.

- Anatomy is the study of the structures and relationship between body parts. Physiology is the study of the function of body parts and the body as a whole. The kidneys remove wastes and water from the blood.

2. List, in order from least to most complex, the levels of structural organization, discuss the relationship between the levels, and name an example at each level. - Atom- is the smallest particle of an element; it is the least complex level. Atoms combine with other atoms to form molecules. An example of an atom is Carbon.

- Molecules- is a particle composed of 2 or more joined atoms. Molecules combine with other molecules to form macromolecules. An example of a molecule is water.

- Macromolecules- a larger molecule. Macromolecules combine with other macromolecules to form organelles. An example of a macromolecules is lipids.

- Organelles- a small organ of a cell, which performs a particular function. Organelle form cells. An example of organelles is ribosomes.

- Cells- are the basic unit of structure and function of living organisms. Each cell has a set of organelles and performs a particular function. An example of cells is red blood cells.

- Tissue- a group of similar cells that performs a specialized function. Two or more tissues combine to form organs. An example of tissue is connective tissue.

- Organs- a structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function. Two or more organs combine to form organ systems. An example of an organ is the heart.

- Organ systems- a group of organs that act together to carry on a specialized function. The eleven organ systems collectively form the human organism. An example of the organ system is cardiovascular.

- Human organism- the most complex level of organization and is defined as an individual living thing.

3. List the 11 organ systems of the human organism, name the major organs within each, and give a general function for each system.

- Integumentary- forms external body, function is to protect deeper tissue from injury. Major organ is skin. - Skeletal- protects and supports organs, site of blood cell formation. Major organ is bones. - Muscular- allows motion, maintains posture. Major organ skeletal muscles. - Nervous- responds to internal/external changes, activates muscles and glands. Major organ is brain. - Endocrine- secretes regulatory hormones and maintains homeostasis. Major organ is endocrine gland. - Cardiovascular- transports materials in body via blood pumped by heart. Major organ is the heart. - Lymphatic- returns fluids to blood vessels, disposes of debris. Major organ lymph nodes. - Respiratory- keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide. Major organ is the nasal cavity. - Urinary- eliminates nitrogenous wastes and maintains acid base regulated. Major organ is the kidneys. - Digestive- Breaks down food and allows for nutrient absorption into blood and eliminates indigestible materials. Major organ is the small and large intestine. - Reproductive- production of offspring. Major organ in male is the testes, in female are ovaries.

4. Name the six life processes that distinguish living from non-living things. 1) Movement

2) Responsiveness

3) Growth

4) Reproduction

5) Respiration

6) Growth

5. Specify the five environmental needs required for life. 1) Nutrients
2) Oxygen
3) Water
4) Stable body temperature...
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