ABSTRACT
Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's rules is fundamental for the understanding of dc circuit. This experiment proves and show how these rules can be applied to so simple dc circuits.

INTRODUCTION
In the theory of Ohm's Law, voltage is simply proportional to current as illustrated in the proportionality, V=RI. As shown in this relation, V represent voltage which is the potential difference across the two ends of a electrical conductor and between which an electric current, I, will flow. The constant, R, is called the conductor's resistance. Thus by the Ohm's Law, one can determine the resistance R in a DC circuit without measuring it directly provided that the remaining variable V and I is known.

A resistor is a piece of electric conductor which obeys Ohm's Law and has been designed to have a specific value for its resistance. As an extension of the Ohm's Law, two more relationship can be drawn for electric circuits containing resistors connected in series or/and parallel. For resistors connected in series, the sum of their resistance is, RTOTAL=R1+R2+ ..... +Rn . And for resistors connected in parallel, 1/RTOTAL==1/R1+1/R2+ ..... +1/Rn . Complex dc circuit involving a combination of parallel and series resistors can be analyzed to find the current and voltage at each point of the circuit using 2 basic rules formulated by Kirchhoff. 1) The algebraic sum of current at any branch point in a circuit is zero. 2) The algebraic sum of potential difference, V, around any closed loop in a circuit is zero. These rules and equations provided by the Ohm's law and the Kirchhoff rule can be experimentally tested with the apparatus available in the lab

EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
The apparatus used in the experiment includes a Voltmeter, an Ammeter, some connecting wires and a series of resistors and light bulb with varies resistance. This experiment could be divided into 5 sections which value of voltage and current...

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Ohm’sLaw
Lab Report Number Three
Quyama T. Wheeler
@02669651
Partner: Munah Kaye
Amber Frazier
Objective: To demonstrate Ohm’slaw and to determine the resistance of a given resistor.
Theory: Ohm’slaw is the assertion that the current through a device is always directly proportional to the potential difference applied to the device. Electric current is the moving of charges from a higher potential to a lower potential. Wires of different material (a copper wire versus a silver wire, for example) will produce different currents, even if applied the same potential difference. This phenomenon, this characteristic respectful to each type of material is known as resistance.
Apparatus:
-two multi-meters (set on the 20mA and 20 V scale)
-unknown resistor board
-Extech instruments (0-18 Volts) Power Supply
Procedure: A circuit connecting the resistor board, the voltmeter and the milli-ammeter is assembled. The 20 milli-ampere range is selected on the ammeter and the 20V on the voltmeter. The power cord is then plugged into an electrical outlet and the unit is turned on. The experiment begins at 15 volts. The voltage and current are both recorded and these steps are repeated successively in two volt increments. A graph of I as a function of V is plotted and fit with a straight line, the slope of which equals the resistance...

...OHM’SLAW
INTRODUCTION
Ohm'slaw states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference or voltage across the two points, and inversely proportional to the resistance between them provided the temperature remains constant.
The mathematical equation that describes this relationship is:
where V is the potential difference measured across the resistance in units of volts; I is the current through the resistance in units of amperes and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm'slaw states that the R in this relation is constant, independent of the current.
The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire. He presented a slightly more complex equation than the one above (see History section below) to explain his experimental results. The above equation is the modern form of Ohm'slaw.
In physics, the term Ohm'slaw is also used to refer to various generalizations of the law originally formulated by Ohm. The simplest example of this is:
where J is the current density at a given location in a resistive material, E is...

...I. Title: Kirchhoff’sLaw
II. Objectives: To study the application of Kirchhoff’sLaw to a D.C. network by comparing the
observed and the computed values of the currents in the circuit.
III. Apparatus: Resistance Module, 1pc. Battery of two cells (3 volts), 1pc. Dry cell (1.5 volts),
Multitester, 4 pairs connectors
IV. Procedure with Experimental Setup:
Part A.
1.) The apparatus was arranged as in diagram 1. The switches were left open until it is checked.
2.) With the switches closed the voltages V1 and V2 across the batteries were measured with a voltmeter.
3.) Considering V1, V2, R1, R2 and R3 as known, the Kirchhoff’slaw was applied to the circuits and the correct number of independent current and voltage equations necessary to solve for the unknown current in each branch was written, that is one current equation and the fewest number of voltage equations that will include every emf and every resistance at least once in a set of equations. The equations for these currents were solved.
4.) Having calculated the current in each brach by an application of Kirchhoff’sLaws, the respective currents were measured experimentally. The circuit was break in turn in each branch and the ammeter was inserted in series to observe the values of the currents.
5.) The...

...Conclusion
Ohm'sLaw states that V=RI where V is the difference of potential at the poles of the element (measured in volts), R is the resistance of the element being tested (a resistor in this case, measured in ohms), and I is the current passing through the circuit (measured in milliamps). When the Y-intercept on the attached voltage drop vs. current in the conductor graph is examined, it is observed that the the ranges of R values overlap, also the expected y-intercept value of 0 falls between the maximum and minimum deviation. By further examining the graph,it is possible to notice that the plot of the voltage drop across the conductor versus the current in the conductor results in a straight line. Furthermore, the origin (0,0) is within experimental error for the y-intercept of the graph. Both these statements show that the tested resistor verified Ohm'sLaw since theoretically the y-intercept should be 0 and the voltage drop across the conductor versus the current in the conductor should be directy proportional. This can be concluded by observing the equation which is y = .054492x ± 0.0016x -.0254 ± 0.10.
This laboratory had few causes of error that could significantly affect results. The most important factor was a mildly fluctuating power supply (the indicated current did not remain perfectly stable after being adjusted). Another possible cause of error is the...

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Rule of Law
Professor Lisa Riggleman
Society, Law and Government
July 7, 2013
Rules of Law
“The rule of law is a system in which the following four universal principles are upheld:”
1. The government and its officials and agents as well as individuals and private entities are accountable under the law.
2. The laws are clear, publicized, and stable and just, are applied evenly, and protect fundamental rights, including the security of person and property.
3. The process by which the laws are enacted, administered and enforced is accessible, fair and efficient.
4. Justice is delivered timely by competent, ethical, and independent representative and neutrals that are of sufficient number, have adequate resources, and reflect the makeup of the communities they serve” (The World Justice, 2012).”.
“The rule of law in its modern sense owes a great deal to the late Professor A. V. Dicey. Professor Dicey’s writing about the rule of law is of enduring significance.”
“The essential characteristic of the rule of law are:
i. The supremacy of law, which means that all persons (individual and government are subject to law
ii. A concept of justice which emphases interpersonal...

...Introduction
The rule of law is fundamental in any society where human rights are to be protected. The word rule comes from “règle” and law from “lagu” roughly translating to “supremacy of law”.1It is a mechanism for safeguarding human rights by guaranteeing them legally and at the same time providing a means for redressal where violations occur.
The most important application of the rule oflaw is the principle that government authority is legitimately exercised in accordance with established procedural steps that are referred as to due process. The principle is intended to be a safeguard against arbitrary governance, whether by a totalitarian leader. Thus, the rule of law is hostile both to dictatorship and to anarchy.
Since a democracy is characterized by majority rule whereby the law is whatever the majority says it is, the rule of law as a result is one of the measures taken to prevent tyranny by that same majority. Thus, it can be said that the rule of law protects the rights of individuals from the whims of the majority. As a consequence, democratic countries require the rule of law due to the fact that it establishes the foundation for certain conditions on which democracy depends unlike authoritarian states which may...

...OHM’SLAW
AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT
Confirmation of OHM’SLAW
THEORY:
It was George Simon Ohm (1787-1854) who established experimentally that the current in a metal wire is directly proportional to the potential difference V applied to its two ends, provided that the physical conditions such as temperature remain constant:
I∞V
Exactly how much current flows in a wire depends not only on the voltage, but also on the resistance the wire offers to the flow of electrons. Electrons are showed down because of interactions with the atoms of the wire. The higher the resistance, the less the current for a given voltage V. Resistance is defined as;
Where R is the resistance of a wire or any other device, V is the potential difference across the device and I is the current that flows through it. This result is known as Ohm’slaw. In this experiment by using equipment circuit experiment board and resistor, we will experimentally verify the Ohm’sLaw.
PROCEDURE:
* I was given a resistor. First of all, I determined the resistance of each resistor from the color codes by using method defined in and wrote my results into the Table.
* I constructed the circuit by using circuit experimental board, DC power supply the resistors.
* I adjusted the voltage of DC power supply to a suitable value and kept...

...Measurement of Resistance and Ohm’sLaw
Section : 04
Instructor’s Name : BERNA DÜNDAR
Experiment Date : 26/02/2014
Submission Date : 05/03/2014
Measurement of Resistance and Ohm’sLaw
Department of Physics,Işık University
Meşrutiyet Köyü,Üniversite Sokağı,No:2 34980 Şile,İstanbul
Abstract
In this experiment we used two multimeters, a set of resistors, a bundle of connecting wires and a DC power supply. By this experiment we learned how to use the electrical instruments, simple circuit elements and we studied Ohm’slaw.
Theory
In electrical circuits, we are concerned with the flow of electrical current around closed loops made up of wires, meters and other components. For this unit we measured and calculated electrical quantities such as direct current, voltage and resistance.
Current
Electrical current is the rate at which electrical charge flows around a circuit. It is measured in units of amperes (A) by ammeters.
Potential Difference (voltage)
Electrical charge tends to move from points of high potential to points of low potential. The difference in potential between two points is called the potential difference or voltage and is measured in units of volts (V).
Resistance
For many devices, it is found that the potential difference appearing across a...

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