Experiment 8: Series and Parallel Circuit Elements Laboratory Report Frenzyl Espinola, Anna Fermin, Loren... Gabayeron, Kristal Fernandez Department of Math and Physics College of Science, University of Santo Tomas España, Manila Philippines Abstract The experiment is about the elements of series and parallel circuits. The laws on series and parallel resistors, as well as the color code for resistors were observed to calculate the total resistance. The proper connection for ammeter and...
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Introduction My research is based on how Ohm’s law is derived and how it is used to solve problems in series and parallel... connection and the resistance of a material. Ohm's Law shows the relationship between the voltage (V), current (I) and resistance (R). It can be written in three ways: V = I × R or I =V/R or R = V/I The resistance (R) of a material depends on Its length, cross-sectional area, The resistivity, and Resistance also depends on temperature, usually...
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3. Series and parallel circuits serve different purposes in households 1. Identify the difference between... series and parallel circuits Series is when the components line up after one another, thus there is only 1 path. In parallel there are multiple paths. Advantages of using parallel circuitry over series circuitry in household wiring include: * You can have some devices on and others off at the same time. * If one device fails the others still work. * All devices receive the...
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Title: Resistors in Series and Parallel Date: 17/7/05 Aim: The aim of this experiment is to compare the predicted and actual... resistance in a circuit of resistor combinations in series and in parallel. Background: A resistor is an electrical component/device that has electrical resistance. Resistors can be used in electric circuits for protection of components, voltage division or current control. In an ideal resistor the resistance remains constant regardless of the applied voltage or current...
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Lab 4 – Series and Parallel DC Circuits PHY2049L Friday Lab 1:00 8th February, 2013... Introduction The purpose of this lab experiment is to test the predictions for current, voltage and resistance of the relationships of parallel and series circuits. The procedures strive to prove that the theoretical outcomes are consistent with the corresponding measured results. After setting up the closed circuits we want to test our own results into the equations...
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Aim: To design a simple electrical circuit for Doctor's Surgery to let people know when to enter and also to research and learn more about... parallel and series circuits. Introduction I am going to design an electric circuit for a Doctor's surgery. There are two types of circuit's Parallel circuit, and Series circuit. First I am going to explain what a circuit is and what the differences they have are. An electric current is a flow of charge. The charges are given energy and made of flow using...
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Investigation on Capacitance and RC circuit Hamdy Hamdy Abdel Moneim Abdou, Jaime Lorenzo C. Olivares, and Karol Giuseppe A. Jubilo National... Institute of Physics, University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City Abstract This experiment is designed to further the understanding of the relationship between voltage, charge, and capacitance of capacitors. This also explains how values of effective capacitance for series and parallel combinations of capacitors are obtained...
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Ohm’s Law is V = I * R or in some cases I = V / R. The next two laws were established by a German physicist by the name of Gustav Kirchhoff. Kirchhoff’s... first law is his voltage law. Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) states that around any loop in a circuit, the voltage rises must equal the voltage drops. The next law that Kirchhoff introduced was his current law. Kirchhoff’s Current Law (KCL) states that the total current entering a junction must equal the total current leaving the junction. These laws...
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Investigating Basic Circuits (DLB) Introduction What is an electrical circuit? How can you manipulate components and design a... circuit that will do what you want it to? This guided activity will introduce you to some components, tools, and concepts that are fundamental in electronics. It will allow you to investigate and discover: What are voltage, current, and resistance? How are they related to one another? What are some of the basic components that make up simple circuits and what do they do?...
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Electric Circuits Fundamentals - Floyd © Copyright 2007 Prentice-Hall Chapter 4 Series circuits Summary... All circuits have three common attributes. These are: 1. A source of voltage. 2. A load. 3. A complete path. VS + R3 R1 R2 A series circuit is one that has only one current path. R1 R1 R2 R3 VS R3 R2 VS R1 R2 R3 VS Electric Circuits Fundamentals...
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I. INTRODUCTION : Series-Parallel Connection is also known as the combined resistive circuits. This is the... combination of series circuit and parallel circuit. Series circuit can be described as a circuit with only one path for charges to move along. This was also the common circuit connection in most rural areas. On the other hand, Parallel circuit can be described as circuit with multiple paths intended for charges to flow freely. This type of circuit connection was used in most urban areas...
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Ohm's Law Series-Parallel Circuits Calculation To end up the discussion of... Series-Parallel Circuits, I would like to post this last one remaining topic which is about Ohm's Law of Series-Parallel Circuits for currents and voltages. I did not even mentioned in my previous topics on how to deal with its currents and voltages regarding this type of circuit connection. Ohms Law in Series-Parallel Circuits Ohm's Law in Series-Parallel Circuits - Current The total current of the series-parallel...
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Voltage: Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Rules ABSTRACT Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's rules is fundamental for the understanding of dc circuit. This... experiment proves and show how these rules can be applied to so simple dc circuits. INTRODUCTION In the theory of Ohm's Law, voltage is simply proportional to current as illustrated in the proportionality, V=RI. As shown in this relation, V represent voltage which is the potential difference across the two ends of a electrical conductor and between which...
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Ohm’s law & resistors in parallel & in series Lab 4 Class: PHY 1434-E475 Due date: March, 13 20144... Group Names: Hisham Sageer Objectives: Our object is to confirm Ohm’s law by analyzing the dependence of the electrical current as a function of voltage and as a function of resistance. Also, we studied the current flow and voltage in series and parallel. Finally, the lab determined the equivalence resistance of series and parallel combination of resistors and...
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built a basic circuit with two LED's and resistors in parallel. The results showed that the voltage is the same in... parallel. The items that were in series had the same current. The results also showed that the current from each branch could be summed up to equal the total current from the source. The experiment also helped the student to see the voltage drop across the diode was almost the same each time. This lab showed the effects of current and voltage in a parallel circuit. This experiment...
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resistive network by series-parallel circuits, the students will demonstrate the characteristics of... series-parallel circuits by measuring and verifying the calculations of the resistance, voltage and current associated with the different resistive components of a series – parallel circuit. On this experiment, the students will also demonstrate the principle of basic electric circuit Law called Ohm’s Law as well as the use of basic principles involved in series, parallel and series-parallel. This experiment...
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Electricity Circuit symbols Potential difference The energy which is delivered to an electric circuit comes from the... supply. The greater the potential difference of the power supply the more energy is delivered. Potential difference is measured in volts, which has the unit symbol V. Cells in series The more chemical cells that are connected in series the greater the potential difference that they supply. The potential difference of a number of cells connected in series is the sum of each...
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Abstract: The investigation involved testing the factors of pencil lead length, cross-sectional area, temperature and lead type to find out how they... affected pencil resistance. The hypothesis was proven as the length (series circuit) graph was exponential and the area (parallel circuit) graph was that of a power function. Higher clay based pencils (2H) had higher resistance to that of higher graphite based pencils (6B), and temperature did not greatly affect the resistance. The reasons as to why diamond...
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Lab 1-Series Circuits SNC2D-3 29th January 2015 Nikita Reshetnikov Electricity Lab #1 Series... Circuits SNC2D name: ___________________ As you go through today’s lab, follow all of the teacher’s instructions carefully. Do not work ahead. Neatness is important. You will need a pencil, eraser, and ruler from now on. Part One- Simple Circuit with 1 Lamp 1. Using the Sigmatron board, power supply (with power cord), one lamp, one switch and one each of the red and black connecting...
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applied across the ends of a second heater wire having a cross-sectional area A and length 2L. Which wire gets hotter? (a) the shorter wire, (b) the longer... wire, or (c) more information is needed. 6. Two resistors, A and B, are connected in a series circuit with a battery. The resistance of A is twice that of B. Which resistor dissipates more power? (a) resistor A (b) resistor B (c) More information is needed. Quick Quizzes - ANSWER ...
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complete circuit. A complete circuit requires a battery, wires and a light bulb. 2. Compare and contrast a series... and parallel circuit. Give at least one way that they are alike and one way that they are different. Both series and parallel circuits must have all the components of a complete circuit in order to work. These two circuits differ in the way the electrons are able to flow. In a series circuit the electrons flow in one direction and along one path only while in a parallel circuit the electrons...
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Series and Parallel Circuits Name:_____________________________________________ Directions: 1. Go to the... following website: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/circuit-construction-kit-ac-virtual-lab 2. Click “Run now.” You now have the raw material to create a circuit. Take a moment to look over the site and find all the different materials. To build a circuit you will need several wires, a light bulb, a voltage source, a voltmeter, and a non – contact...
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Series and Parallel Circuits Name: Angelica Castro Directions: 1. Go to the following website:... http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/circuit-construction-kit-ac-virtual-lab 2. Click “Run now.” You now have the raw material to create a circuit. Take a moment to look over the site and find all the different materials. To build a circuit you will need several wires, a light bulb, a voltage source, a voltmeter, and a non – contact ammeter. Play with it to see how to grab and manipulate...
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RC Circuits •In this presentation, circuits with multiple batteries, resistors and capacitors will be reduced to an equivalent... system with a single battery, a single resistor, and a single capacitor. Kirchoff's laws will be stated, and used to find the currents in a circuit. In addition, the equation for the time-constant of an RC circuit will be derived. Ohm's Law When a battery is connected to a resistor, the battery will cause a current to flow through the resistor. The larger the voltage...
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terminology Series Circuits Parallel Circuits Ohm’s Law and dc Circuits Simple... Electrical Diagrams For single-source parallel networks, the source current (I ) is equal to the sum of the individual branch currents. s Is = I1 + I 2 For a parallel circuit, source current equals the sum of the branch currents. For a series circuit, the applied voltage equals the sum of the voltage drops. V V In this first example, we will calculate the amount of current (I) in a circuit, given...
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: SERIES TYPE OHMMETER SUBJECT : BENE 1183 ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION 1.0 Title: Reproduce the... series type Ohmmeter using PMMC of Ifsd = 30 μA for range of 0-10 kΩ. 2.0 Objectives : 1. To design a series type Ohmmeter using PMMC. 2. To understand the properties of series type Ohmmeter. 3. To design a series type ohmmeter when Ifsd=30μA is given. 4. To calculate the half scale deflection and full scale deflection of the series type...
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Discussion In the experiment AC circuits, the purpose was to see the effect that a capacitor, resistor, and inductor have on the voltage,... and current of a circuit. We created circuits with 2 resistors, a capacitor and a resistor, and then a capacitor, resistor, and an inductor. The circuits were then hooked up to a function generator, and oscilloscope to find the voltage across certain frequencies and then calculate the peak current, capacitive reactance or the inductive reactance, and phase difference...
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OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this lab was to study circuits with resistors connected in series, parallel and the... combination of the two. It was also to determine the internal resistance of an ammeter. RESULTS/GRAPHS PART 1: Series Circuit Circuits were constructed in series by connecting resistors end-to-end so the current remains the same through each resistor. Table 1: Ri values before constructing circuit Resistor Label Resistance (Ω) R1 100-Ω 99.6 Ω R2 200-Ω 199. 0 Ω R3 300-Ω 299.0 Ω Req (Calc)...
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Name and describe the components needed to make a complete circuit. 1 Battery. 1 Connecting wire. 1 Resistor (say a BULB or so....) ... 1 Voltmeter (connected in parallel) 1 Ammeter (Connected in Series..) ● Compare and contrast a series and parallel circuit. Give at least one way that they are alike and one way that they are different. ● series and parallel alike: all resistances affect the net resistance, all components see current flow. series and parallel different: series components have identical current flows in all ...
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(RL) CIRCUIT TOM CARNEY Table of Contents 1. Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….Page 2 2. Theoretical... Analysis………………………………………………………………………Page 3 3. Questions related to constructed circuit……………………………………….Page 5 4. Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….Page 6 5. Works cited……………………………………………………………………………………Page 6 6. Illustrations…………………………………………………………………………………….Page 7-8 Transient Analysis of a Resistor- Inductor (RL) Circuit ...
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houses parallel connections for the lights (the bulbs). We choose this subject because parallel connection is the best for... houses. We will mention the equipment and the procedure of the circuit so it could be clearer. Also the energy that comes out is a renewable energy system. Introduction/Theory: parallel circuit: a closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit. Conventional house wiring systems are made up of parallel circuits—it’s...
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Introduction to Cells in Series and Parallel In this article of cells in series and in parallel we... are going to learn what happens if cells are connected in series and in parallel and both. Depending on the type of application we can connect cells in series or parallel or both. Cells in Series and Parallel : Series Connection Back to Top Cells connected in series have positive terminal from one cell connected to negative terminal of another cell and negative terminal of one cell connected...
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Science 9F Blake M. Series and parallel circuits Lab Part A: Series Bulbs Prediction... Observation 1 The bulb will light up pretty bright Strong 2 The 2 bulbs will be a little dimmer because they don't have as much power Not as strong 3 The 3 bulbs will be even dimmer Less strong 3, 1 unscrewed The whole circuit will shut off because there will be nowhere else for the current to pass The whole circuit shut off Part B: Parallel Bulbs Prediction Observation 2 ...
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paper aims to validate the Kirchhoff’s rule by comparing and accounting for discrepancies between the calculated and measured values i.e. the current and the... potential difference across a network of resistors. The experiment is done by creating a circuit with three resistors of varying resistances (1000Ω, 470Ω, & 250Ω) connected to two nine volt batteries. Using the DMM, the current and potential difference can be experimentally measured and via Kirchhoff’s first and second rule, the unknown values...
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ammeters and voltmeters in a circuit. In connecting ammeters and voltmeters in a circuit, it must be parallel to... the power source in the circuit. 2. What will happen to the voltmeter and to the circuit if the voltmeter is accidentally connected in series with the load? Explain. If accidentally connected in a series, the voltmeter will not read anything because the voltage in a series connection is not equally distributed. 3. What will happen to the ammeter and to the circuit if the ammeter is accidentally...
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source and series resistance of series-parallel circuit using thevenin’s theorem. * To measure... the voltage and resistance of a series parallel circuit, using voltmeter and ohmmeter. * To measure the load current and voltage of a series parallel circuit, using ammeter and voltmeter. II. THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION: Any complex circuit between two terminal can be replaced with a single equivalent series circuit consisting of a thevenin voltage Vo in series with a thevenin...
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ceAn ammeter measures electric current, in amps, by measuring how much charge is flowing in the circuit. A voltmeter measures, in volts, the... difference in electrical energy between two points of a circuit. Have you ever heard a crackle when taking off your jumper? This is caused by tiny electric charges on your clothes. It's called static electricity. Your jumper and shirt get electrically charged as they rub together, and then negative electric charges jump from one to the other. This makes...
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resistors in circuits with the help of circuit diagrams. 2. Write the formulae to calculate the effective resistances when... resistors are connected (a) in series and (b) in parallel. 3. How is the total potential difference calculated across a combination of resistors in series? 4. Example 12.7 An electric lamp, whose resistance is 20 Ω, and a conductor of 4 Ω resistance are connected to a 6 V battery (Fig. 12.9). Calculate (a) the total resistance of the circuit, (b) the current...
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Engineering EC 120 Electrical & Electronic Principles II Laboratory 3 – Resonance Activity 1: 1. Construct the following parallel LC... circuit on breadboard. Resister (R) is used to measure the current goes through LC parallel combination. i Vmax = 28v Vr pp =1.78v vr pp(1kz)=1.8 vr pp ( b VIN 10 nF 2.2 mH Figure2 1 Figure 2. Connect the signal generator output to the input of the circuit (VIN) and select Sine wave function. Switch on the output of the signal generator and observe the voltage across...
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Yewande Adeniyi | 9/22/2011 | | PROCEDURE 1. Connect the ammeter A, the voltmeter V, and the power supply PS to the Resistance Box. The basic... circuit supply is series with a resistor. To measure the current in the resistor, the ammeter is placed in series. To measure the voltage across the resistor, the voltmeter is placed in parallel. 2. Vary the current through resistor R1 in steps of .125A to .500A. For each specified value of the current, measure the voltage across the resistor...
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What are the laws of series resistors? Of parallel resistors? Are these laws verified in your experiment? Ohm’s Law -... Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I), where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). Series and parallel resistors - The total resistance of resistors connected in series is the sum of their individual resistance values. The total resistance of resistors connected in parallel is the reciprocal of the...
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GENERAL PHYSICS PRACTICALS EXPERIMENT ONE WHEATSTONE BRIDGE EXPERIMENT 25TH FEBRUARY 2010 AIM The aim is to use the Wheatstone bridge... circuit to: 1. Determine unknown resistances Determine the total resistance: 1. Of resistors in series 2. Of resistors in parallel APPARATUS 1. Slide wire meas. Bridge (1) 2. Connection box (1) 3. Standard PEK carbon resistor (1) 4. Unknown PEK carbon resistors (5) 5. Power supply 5V/1A...
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Student Exploration Circuits Vocabulary ammeter, circuit, current, electron, ohmmeter, Ohms law, parallel... circuit, resistance, resistor, series circuit, voltage Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) Strings of holiday lights can be designed in one of two ways. In some strings of lights, each light is connected to the others along a single wire (in series). In others, each light is attached to its own wire (in parallel). Suppose a single light bulb burns out. How do you think...
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1FORMAL REPORT # 1 Experiment # 7 Title: SERIES-PARALLEL CIRCUITS Date: 15/OCT/2014 Name: AMISH PATEL... Student #: 000356107 Lab Partner’s Name: MANPREET SINGH Per item grading: 0 - Missing 1 - Unacceptable 2 - Satisfactory 3 - Very Good 4 - Excellent! Neatness & Presentation Detailed Calculations Spelling & Grammar Tables/Graphs/Diagrams Statement of Purpose Procedure Equipment List Conclusion Data/Results In-Class Work and Report Sheets Attached GRADE:...
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we examine properties of DC and AC circuits over the course of 2 weeks. We also learn about an analysis method called linear regression,... allowing us to estimate function parameters and get a value for uncertainty. In the first week, we focused on DC circuits, observing Ohm’s law with resistors and deviations of Ohm’s law using a resistor and a diode. In the second week, the focus was on AC circuits, more specifically RC, RL, and RLC circuits. For RLC circuits, we measured resonance frequency as...
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aim of this experiment was to calculate the resistivity of resistors in circuits. We use Ohm’s law to calculate the resistivity in ohmic... objects, and a digital multimeter to figure it out in non-Ohmic objects, like light bulbs. The resistivity was calculated to be 0.169 ohm-meters. Introduction: A resistor provides resistance for current flowing through a circuit. A perfect conductor has zero resistance, but most circuits have a level of resistivity. An Ohmic object obeys ohm's law, while a Non-ohmic...
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about Nicholas Thompson 11Physics Question 1 – Distinguish the terms Voltage and Current: Voltage is the electric potential difference between 2 points in a... circuit that determines the amount of work that can be done with the electrons, whereas current is the level of flowing electrons past a point as positive or negative charge in a circuit. In a sense voltage is to current as kicking off on a skateboard is to cruising on the skateboard. You kick off, and then use the exerted power to roll along...
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Basic Circuit Analysis Name Institutional analysis Abstract This report is about an experiment that is done to verify Thevenin’s theorem... and Norton’s theorem. The verification is done by first determining the resistance of a circuit of resistances by determining the nodal voltages and nodal currents using Partsim Software. The measured currents and voltages are the used to determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit that is the used to determine the Thevenin voltage, Thevenin resistance...
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Mean Rs = | 7.89 ohms (Ω) | | Table for series Circuit: Rs= 7.89ohms (Ω) Resistance in ohms (Ω) | Direction of... Deflection | Third arm resistance is | Arm Q | Arm P | Arm R | | | 10 | 10 | 0 | Left | | | | 1 | L | | | | 2 | Right | | 10 | 100 | 20 | R | | | | 19 | R | | | | 18 | L | | 10 | 1000 | 195 | R | | | | 194 | O | | | | 193 | L | | Mean Rp = | 1.94 ohms (Ω) | | Table 2 for Parallel Circuit: Rp= 1.94 ohm’s (Ω) Theory: ...
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experiment was performed to determine the transformation of delta to wye networks and wye to delta networks. It is easily to determine the transformation... of networks using the formula of delta and wye connection. II. Introduction Standard 3-phase circuits or networks take on two major forms with names that represent the way in which the resistances are connected, a wye connected Network which has the symbol of the letter, Υ (wye) and a Delta connected Network which has the symbol of a triangle, Δ...
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Circuits consisting of just one battery and one load resistance are very simple to analyze, but they are not often found in practical... applications. Usually, we find circuits where more than two components are connected together. There are two basic ways in which to connect more than two circuit components: series and parallel. First, an example of a series circuit: Here, we have three resistors (labeled R1, R2, and R3), connected in a long chain from one terminal of the battery to the other...
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Introduction to DC circuits Purpose: The purpose of this lab is to become acquainted with circuits, voltmeters and ammeters.... Method: First the values on each resistor were calculated individually using the colour code. Then the values on these resistors were calculated using a voltmeter. In order to calculate the resistor values, the dial of the voltmeter was set 1-6 volts in increments at 1 volt at a time and the ammeter readings were recorded. Then using the Weston mA meter the mill amperes...
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Date Received: December 12, 2012 Instructor: Chris Eldridge Valdehueza Signature:_____________ I. Objectives In this... experiment we first consider meter accuracy before making circuit measurements. II. Introductory In working with most electrical circuits we are concerned with resistance, voltage and currents. Multimeters are useful for such measurements, but their accuracy is limited. III. Materials Needed a.) Analog and Digital multimeter b.) 300Ω...
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P = V2/R Resistors in series A series circuit has components connected one after another in a continuous... chain. The current must be the same everywhere in the circuit since the charge is conserved. The total potential difference is shared among the components. R(total) = R(1)+R(2)+R(3) you can use V=IR to calculate the potential difference. Resistors in parallel A parallel circuit branches and allows the charges more than one possible route around the circuit. The potential difference...
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junctions into one and create the electrical circuit you see in sketch 1. We simplify circuit 1 by connecting all the resistors... in parallel into one resistor: 1 Rt = 1 R + 1 R ) Rt = R 2 now we have a circuit like in sketch 2. 1 We simplify circuit 2 by connecting all the resistors in row into one resistor: Rt = R 2 + R + R 2 = 2R now we have a circuit like in sketch 3. We simplify circuit 3 by connecting all the resistors in parallel into one resistor: 1 Rt = 2 R + 1 2R ...
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currents entering a node is equal to zero. 2. What is the equation for the total current in a parallel circuit? It= I1+I2+I3….... 3. Determine the total current in the following nodes. 1) It= 2mA+4mA+6mA= 0.012x10^-3=12mA 2) I + I1+I3= I2 I= 2mA+4mA= 1mA I= 1mA- 6mA I= -5mA 4. Determine the total current in the following circuit. It= I1+I2+I3= 10mA+20mA+40mA= 0.07 x 10^-3= 70mA 5. If VS = 10 V in the circuit above, what are the following voltages? R1= V/I= 10V/10mA= 1000 x 10^3= 1kΩ ...
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Week 4 Practice Problems Chapter 4 Series Circuits 11. Determine the potentiometer setting needed to set the current in... Figure 4.33a to 18 mA. I1= Vs/R1= 10V/470Ω= 0.02127 x 10^-3= 21mA I2= It(I1)= 18mA(21mA)= 0.000378 x 10^-6= 378µA R2= Vs/I2= 10V/378µA= 26455 x 10^3= 26.455kΩ 12. Determine the potentiometer setting needed to set the current in Figure 4.33b to 27 mA. I1= Vs/R1 = 30V/750Ω = 0.04 x 10^-3= 40mA I2= It(I1)= 27mA(40mA)= 0.00108 x 10^-3= 1.08mA R2= Vs/I2= 30V/1...
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signage boards and to build a communication link between them using the same power cable. INTRODUCTION As there is a need for data communication at... various places; need for developing more and more efficient and affordable data communication circuits arises. Even if we develop new methods for data communication, the basic need for any method will be laying of a communication channel/network. Laying of such networks would require more space, time, funds, etc. To avoid laying of new networks for...
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of each length. Plan In this investigation, a simple circuit will be set up to read the voltage and current when the length of the wire... changes. The length will range from 10cm-80cm with intervals of 10cm. The length of the wire will be changed by moving the crocodile clip across the wire and checking the measurements with a ruler. The circuit should be set up as in the circuit diagram (as attached). The voltmeter should be set up parallel to the ammeter. The readings from the ammeter and voltmeter...
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Series-Parallel Combinations Many "real life"circuits are a combination of elements in series and... parallel. It is not possible to solve these circuits by direct application of these basic rules. However, adding some simple procedures for reducing the circuit to a simple series or parallel circuit will allow us to solve most circuits of interest. The basic procedure is to use a step-by-step process of replacing combinations of elements that are in simple series or parallel with the equivalent single...
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