Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality Standards in Nigeria

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European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.34 No.4 (2009), pp.550-560 © EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2009 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm

Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality Standards in Nigeria
F. I. Abam Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cross River University of Technology P.M.B 1123. Calabar, Nigeria E-mail: faibiang@yahoo.com Tel: +2348054383418 G. O. Unachukwu National Centre for Energy Research and Development University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nigeria E-mail: godwinogechi@yahoo.com Tel: +2348050525033 Abstract This paper reports the results of the investigation of vehicular emissions in selected areas in Calabar Nigeria. Three areas MP1, MP2 , and MP3 were considered with nine sampling points (SP1 – SP9) in each area placed 8.0m away from the edge of the road in downwind direction. Priority parameters: CO, NO2, SO2, PM10 and noise level were monitored. Other relevant parameters monitored includes ambient temperature, wind direction, wind velocity and traffic count. The results of CO, NO2, SO2, PM10 and noise level were in the range of 3.3-8.7ppm, 0.02 – 0.09ppm, 0.04 – 0.15ppm, 170 - 260 μ g/m3 and 58.5 -72.4dB respectively. The highest level obtained for the air pollution indicators for CO was: 8.7ppm, 7.6ppm and 7.4ppm at SP1 for day 1, 2 and 3. The concentration of SO2 was highest at SP2 with values 0.10ppm and 0.12ppm. Emission concentration for NO2, PM10 and noise level was found to be highest at SP2 where traffic intersections and traffic count is high. All the five monitored air pollutants when compared with AQI level (Air quality index) were in the range of: CO – poor to moderate and moderate to poor in different locations. SO2 – was from very poor to poor, NO2- from very poor to poor, PM10 and noise level was poor at all locations. The overall comparison of data for different sections show that concentration of pollutants is highest at (SP1 – 3) and (SP8 – 9) in the three areas MP1, MP2 , and MP3 due to volume of traffic and pollution. The study concludes that transport-related pollution in Calabar is indeed significant with possible severe health consequences.

Keywords: Vehicular Emission, Concentration,

Air

Quality

Index,

Air

pollution,

Emission

1. Introduction
Vehicular emission remains a threat to environmental health problem which is expected to increase reasonably as vehicle ownership increases in the world. Over 600 million people globally are exposed to hazardous level of traffic – generated pollutants UN, (1998). Human exposure to these air pollutants

Vehicular Emissions and Air Quality Standards in Nigeria

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due to traffic is believed to have constituted severe health problems especially in urban areas where pollution levels are on the increase. Pollution due to traffic constitute up to 90 – 95% of the ambient CO levels, 80 – 90% of NOx, hydrocarbon and particulate matter in the world, posing a serious threat to human health Savile, (1993). Research conducted a decade and half ago has shown that transportation sources in the USA were responsible for 77% of CO levels, 80 -90% of NOx, 36% of volatile organic compounds and 22% of particulate matter USEPA, (1993). Similarly, in UK the average concentration of NO2 was found to increase by 35% from 1986 to 1991 due to increase in vehicular emission CEC, (1992). On the global sense, Seneca and Tausig, (1994), Faucet and Sevingny (1998) have all arrived at the same conclusion that transportation is the major culprit of air pollution accounting for over 80% of total air pollutants. This is a clear indication that vehicle emissions are a major source of ambient air pollution and must be controlled if acceptable air quality is to be assured. In addition, there are numerous health problems associated with high concentration of these pollutants. For example NO2 is responsible for immune system impairment, exacerbation of asthma and chronic respiratory diseases: reduced lung function and...
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