The issue of transportation and the environment is paradoxical in nature. From one side, transportation activities support increasing mobility demands for passengers and freight, and this ranging from urban areas to international trade. On the other side, transport activities have resulted in growing levels of motorization and congestion. As a result, the transportation sector is becoming increasingly linked to environmental problems. With a technology relying heavily on the combustion of hydrocarbons, notably with the internal combustion engine, the impacts of transportation over environmental systems has increased with motorization. This has reached a point where transportation activities are a dominant factor behind the emission of most pollutants and thus their impacts on the environment.
This paper will provide information on the danger of the exhaust from motorcycles. This paper will enumerate the common problems both in the environment and to human beings. Furthermore, the researchers will provide the possible solution for the environmental problems caused by air pollution. Alternative transportation as the main solution for environmental problems.
Meaning of environmentalism
Transportation in the Philippines
Tricycles – motorcycles with a sidecar attached are especially for short trips.
Jeepneys – are used for short and long distances. The jeepneys have mostly fixed routes within big cities and routes from “town to town”
Buses – there are air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buses
For traveling in the Philippines there are a lot of cheap possibilities. For the long distances on the bigger islands, the buses are the best possibility. Traveling per train is hardly possible, because there is only on one island a railway.
For the shorter distances on all islands (outside and inside towns and cities), people make use of the jeepneys, multicabs and tricycles. In big cities like Manila or Cebu City, the most common mean of transportation is the jeepney. Everywhere in the Philippines, for the more short and local distances, the multicabs and tricycles are used by many Filipinos. The tricycle, a motorcycle with an attached passenger-cabin on a third wheel, is the cheapest. The big advantage of the tricycle is that it will bring you to every desired place. The multicabs, just as the jeepneys, have fixed routes.
Bicycles registered – 170 units
MCH registered – 1,323 (max 2,500)
Harmful effects to the environment
Human Respiratory System
The health of our lungs and entire respiratory system is affected by the quality of the air we breathe. In addition to oxygen, this air contains other substances such as pollutants, which can be harmful. Exposure to chemicals by inhalation can negatively affect our lungs and other organs in the body. The respiratory system is particularly sensitive to air pollutants because much of it is made up of exposed membrane. Lungs are anatomically structured to bring large quantities of air (on average, 400 million liters in a lifetime) into intimate contact with the blood system, to facilitate the delivery of oxygen.
Lung tissue cells can be injured directly by air pollutants such as ozone, metals and free radicals. Ozone can damage the alveoli -- the individual air sacs in the lung where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged. More specifically, airway tissues which are rich in bio-activation enzymes can transform organic pollutants into reactive metabolites and cause secondary lung injury. Lung tissue has an abundant blood supply that can carry toxic substances and their metabolites to distant organs. In response to toxic insult, lung cells also release a variety of potent chemical mediators that may critically affect the function of other organs such as those of the cardiovascular system. This response may also cause lung inflammation and impair lung function.
1 Structure and Function...
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