Today urbanisation has occurred in many places around the globe. The urbanisation is something that people sometimes did not realize the changes. This paper will discuss about the urbanisation that are rapidly happen in our world today and how the roles of landscape architecture professions could also take a major part in the situation.
2. Definition of Urbanisation
According to Nsiah-Gyaabah (retrieved on 24 October 2011), urbanisation is the shift from a rural to an urban society, and involves an increase in the number of people in urban areas during a particular year. The author also stated that urbanisation is the outcome of social, economic and political developments that lead to urban concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use and transformation from rural to metropolitan pattern of organization and governance. Similarly, wikispace homepage (retrieved on 22 October 2011) also stated that urbanisation is the increase in the proportion of people who lives in urban environments. Over time more and more people have moved into the larger communities, thus making them bigger still. However from wiki answer homepage, the answer is quite different. It described that urbanisation is what will occurs when the rural character of a town is gradually replaced by housing and industrial developments, resulting in more suburbs. Essentially, it is an increase in the proportion of people living in urban or developed areas compared to rural areas. Finally from the finding above, it can be concluded that the term urbanisation is refers to an increasing number of people that living in the towns or cities and this situation may contribute towards the rapid growth of development in particular urban areas.
2. The process of urbanisation
By referring from the Department of Geography webpage (retrieved on 22 October 2011) the process of urbanisation has occurred differently in much of the developing world. The page claimed that urban areas are usually thought to be the centre of business, commerce, industry and population. Exampled liked early in United States history urban areas were far outnumbered by rural areas. Yet, every year more and more cities are considered urban. These cities were located close to transportation routes whether waterways, rails or roads. So the opportunities presented by industrialization increased the rural to urban migration and cities began to grow. While according to Nsiah-Gyaabah (retrieved on 24 October 2011) the urbanisation processes are largely driven by the market forces and government policies that lead to simultaneous processes of change in livelihoods, land use, health and natural resources management including water, soil and forests and often reactive changes in local governance. The author also stated that the government development policies and budget allocations, which often favour urban residents over rural areas, tend to pull people into the urban areas. In the cities, public investment, which often misses the urban poor, with expenditures biased towards the higher-income classes and poverty among vulnerable groups such as new migrants force them into slums and squatter settlements. Based on the elaboration above, it can be conclude that the process of urbanisation is basically are generate by many factors, either from government’s policies and planning until the demand that comes from residents. Together they develop the area from time to times. These are all the opportunities that urban area can give in other to attract more people to migrate to the cities and by doing so, the process of urbanisation will still keep going.
3. The profession of Landscape Architecture
1. Definition of Landscape Architecture
Meanwhile by referring to ASLA (retrieved on 23 October 2011), landscape...