Three generations of urban renewal policies: analysis and policy implications Naomi Carmon *
Faculty of Architecture and Town Planning, Technion ± Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
Abstract This paper, based on 20 years of research and teaching related to urban renewal policies and programs, analyzes the history of planned intervention for the regeneration of distressed residential areas. It divides it into three ``generations'', each with unique policy components, related to the social, economic and political characteristics of its period in history, with dierent major players, methods of action and outcomes. All three generations can be identi®ed in the US, the UK and several other European countries, although not always precisely in the same form and at the same time. Analysis of three case studies in Israeli neighborhoods is used in this paper to point at typical results and the main lessons that can be taken from each of the three generations. Finally, a set of proposed policies, based on lessons learned from the preceding generations and projects, is presented. This set is likely to achieve better results with respect to both people (the residents) and places (the neighborhoods) than those obtained from earlier eorts at regeneration. Ó 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction The goals of this paper are to analyze policies of intervention in deteriorated urban areas, learn from past experience and propose a set of improved regeneration principles of action. The paper is composed of three parts. The ®rst is a condensed historical analysis of planned ± mainly public ± intervention in distressed residential areas, primarily in the United States and the United Kingdom, but also in European countries and Israel (the authorÕs country). The analysis introduces three generations of policies, and includes a description of the initiatives with their socioeconomic background, a recapitulation of activities and actors, and evaluations of the outcomes. The second part presents Israeli case studies of three neighborhoods, representing the three generations of neighborhood remedies and their lessons. The third, which is policy oriented, proposes strategic and tactical principles for a new generation of urban regeneration policies and programs. 2. Historical overview Most of the published literature presents the history of planned intervention in urban areas in each country * Tel.: +972-4-829-4075; fax: +972-4-829-4617; e-mail: carmon@tx. technion.ac.il
separately. In this paper, the emphasis is on our shared experience, especially as it evolved in Great Britain and the United States, and in Israel that followed them, with some reference to other Western countries. The similarities we ®nd are partly attributed to international policy transfer, but to a larger extent, are related to similarities in the socioeconomic and sociopolitical developments in Western countries, particularly after World War II. The historical overview is divided into generations of policies. The term generations is appropriate in this context, because it expresses reference to periods of time, each with its unique social, economic and political characteristics and with dierent main actors, who create dierent policies. The claim is that a typical approach to issues of regeneration can be identi®ed for each generation. This does not mean, however, that the typical approach was the only one at the time; we know of overlaps between generations and also within generations. But the suggested classi®cation seems to be fruitful in terms of understanding policy changes, analyzing their outcomes and learning their lessons. 2.1. First Generation: the era of the bulldozer ± physical determinism and emphasis on the built environment Intolerable housing conditions in old and very old buildings in the growing cities, coupled with the wish to...