With Reference to Examples, Evaluate the Success or Otherwise of Urban Regeneration Schemes in Combating the Causes and Consequences of Urban Decline (40)

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With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline (40) Such a question is extremely difficult to answer given its multifaceted nature. In order to approach this question it is necessary to outline that success is an extremely subjective conclusion as what may be a success for some people in a region might be seen as a failure for other people in that same region, or indeed another region, so assessing the overall successes of regeneration is highly complex. Urban decline although often hard to judge when the process first begins, is easy to determine over time as one can measure the effects it has had. Urban decline is generally defined as when an area starts losing businesses, people lose their jobs, people move away from the area as the local economy shrinks meaning the desirability of the area as a whole also falls. In order to establish how effectively a scheme might combat urban decline it is first necessary to highlight the causes of urban decline which often interact with each other and are strongly interlinked with the consequences of urban decline. One of the principle reasons for urban decline is a changing of the industry within an area. As industries change, often away from manufacturing to tertiary, a region is typically impacted and the region loses their industry leaving high unemployment and increasing overall deprivation which results in the consequences of poor housing, high crime rates and population decline. A further cause of urban decline is a changing population. Often influenced by outward migration, much of the time being the skilled youths, an area can lose its competitive edge to another region resulting in unemployment and social deprivation. A final cause of urban decline is lack of investment leading to environmental decay and derelict land inhibiting private investment in an area. If these causes can be assessed by the regeneration...
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