Jean Piaget was a biologist when he started but by the time he was 21 moved to the development of children’s understanding, through observing them whilst he set them tasks. He has given us a better idea of how a child’s mind works and how they grow up.
Cognitive theory is concerned with the development of a person's thought processes. It also looks at how these thought processes influence how we understand and interact with the world. When a child is born it goes through various stages of this development by understanding their environment from birth they can also process all the information around them using their developing thinking skills this then grows with age. People have always believed that there are 4 stages of cognitive development: * Sensorimotor stage.
In infancy knowledge of the outside world is very limited but children learn through interacting with family and experiences when visiting other environments like the outdoors. * Pre-operational stage
In early childhood your child will develop these skills and start to use more language and as the brain grows so will their memory, holding more information, they can then start to use their imagination through play. Although will still confuse fact with fiction. * Concrete operational stage
In this stage, cognitive development uses intelligence to think through logical problems in relation concrete objects. Their basic math skills will be developing and they can now sort items into categories and think about two things simultaneously. * Formal operational stage
This is late teens into adulthood and this is when they start thinking logically and abstractly including thinking of what might happen in the future. They can now transfer information from one situation to another and can solve complex problems in their head. * Psychoanalytical
This is where according to scientists the mind can be split into two parts. The conscious mind and the unconscious mind. The conscious mind is when we are aware of things that are happening and are able to control them through our senses and emotions but the unconscious however is described as when you have unresolved issues that you think are resolved the mind can pick them out at any moment when you least expect them which can cause confusion. The basic tenet’s of psychoanalysis include the following: 1. Human behaviour, experience and cognition are largely determined by innate and irrational drives. 2. Those drives are usually unconscious.
3. Attempts to bring those drives into awareness meets psychological resistance in the form of defence mechanisms. 4. Beside the inherited constitution of personality a persons development is determined by events in childhood 5. Conflicts between conscious view of reality and unconscious( repressed)material can result in mental disturbances such as neurosis neurotic traits anxiety depression etc.. 6. The liberation from the effects of the unconscious material is achieved through bringing this material into the consciousness (via for example skilled guidance). Sigmund Freud was the founder of this type of psychology and his approach was to get an understanding of a person’s behaviour and emotions rather than locking people away that had mental health problems or treating them with drugs. Since Sigmund Freud’s day it has changed a lot and ideas have been revolutionised coming up with new theories which help us with all types of treatment for psychology. * Humanist
Abraham Maslow believed in 5 needs of a person.
The physiological needs, the needs for being safe, the need for belonging, the needs for esteem and the need actualize the self in that order. * Physiological
These include the needs we have for oxygen, water, salt, sugar, calcium and other vitamins. The need to maintain a PH balance and keep at a good temperature. We also need to rest, sleep, get rid of body waste and avoid pain.