THEORIST AND THEIR THEORIES
Erik Erikson is a psychoanalytical theorist who divided his theory to eight developmental stages throughout the life span (Berk, 2007). The eight stages are , Trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame and doubt, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs role confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generative vs stagnation, integrity vs despair. If issues were to arise any of the stages were not dealt with well, it would influence the next later stages of development. Erikson also emphasized the wider social and Vygotsky was a social development theorist. Vygotsky focused on the connections between people and the sociocultural environment, where they interact and share experiences (Crawford, 1996).
Vygotsky theory is one of the foundations of constructivism. This states three major themes he created. They are: inter/ intra psychological, more knowledgeable other (MKO), Zone of proximal development (ZPD).family relationships who surrendered the child to be more of an influence rather than biology.
Jean Piaget was a cognitive theorist who had believed that children learn through adapting their world and since “he was trained as a biologist” (Pearson, 2007, p.143) he showed humans how to demonstrate their intelligence through adaptation to the environment. Like Erikson, Piaget had believed that children pass through different stages of the development, but in their thinking. The four stages of development are : Sensory motor stage (birth – 2years) – knowledge develops through sensory and motor abilities, Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) – the child is learning to apply logical structures with languages, mental imaginary and symbolic thoughts, Concrete Operational stage (7-12 years) – the child has now a hold on logical operations that helps them to understand physical properties, Formal Operational stage (12 years and up) – children think deeply about concrete events and reason abstractly and hypothetically. Since Piaget was influenced by biological principles, he believed that humans were not seeking too much disruption in the children’s development. They were to be left on their own to explore and develop their own time and capabilities.
John Bowlby believed that attachment had an evolutionary component; it aids in survival. "The propensity to make strong emotional bonds to particular individuals [is] a basic component of human nature" (Bowlby, 1988, 3). This theorist relates to my experience when my parents went Afghanistan for six months and I had two children to take care of and a whole house this was a hard job to me it seemed like I was a mother because the child would call me that im there mother. They got so attached to me and even now they are the same they tell me that a (big sister is like our mum) and I felt like I have been a mum for years. That my theorist.
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES
Vygotsky and Piaget are two obvious theorists who would disagree on a lot of each others’ theory. However, there are some few common grounds that they can meet on. Vygotsky and Piaget (Black Well Publishing, 2003) emphasized the importance of the early stages of development, where an infant uses body language instead of speaking verbally. Both Piaget and Vygotsky believe that development proceeds in stages, building on the previous stage, and how children think using different strategies at different stages. Their major difference is about a child’s development with or without a significant other. Piaget strongly believes that children discover for...