Explain the sequence and rate of each aspect of development from birth – 19 years a. • Physical
0-1: babies will start to use their reflexes, they start to look less curled up and startle less, will start to lift and turn their heads, will lift their hands and foot in the air and balance on their fronts, will start using fingers to eat. 1-3: will stand up and hold to the furniture, will sit and push off with legs on sit-and-ride toys. Will start to run and climb, is able to pedal or push along with feet on a tricycle, walk up the stairs using alternate feet. 4-7: will have skilful use of the hands to carry out activities such as threading, pouring or using the scissors, will have the ability to kick a ball and will be able to control it. 7-12: drawings and writing will be more neater and the cutting out will be more accurate. There will be greater co-ordination and speed when carrying out both fine and large movements. There will be growth and changes to the body. 13-19: for most boys puberty will start and will take about 3 years to complete, girls will have finished becoming women. There may be occasional poor spatial awareness as a result of the body shape changing quickly. b. • Communication
0-1: babies will cry when hungry, tired or need changing or feeling distressed. Babies will start to coo and gurgle. Babies will start to smile back when they see a smiling face. Will begin to lift arms up to the carer to show that they want to be picked up. There will be tuneful strings of babbling. 1-3: finger pointing at objects to draw an adult’s attention to them. Less babbling and more recognisable words. Will have a vocabulary of around 200 words. Will start using two word sentences such as “mummy work”. will have speech that is easily understood. 4-7: children will start to ask questions about things and will enjoy talking. Begin to decode some familiar words. 7-12: will start to tell jokes and enjoy chatting, verbal arguments, persuasion and negotiation. Will begin to tell stories and writing that show imagination as well as being legible and reasonably grammatical. 13-19: will have good reading and writing skills. Negotiating and persuading adults and peers. Will have the use of a phones and technology to communicate with friends. c. • Intellectual/cognitive
0-1: babies who recognise the smell and sound of their mother’s voice. Babies stop crying because they hear a familiar voice, babies start to notice mobiles and other objects around them . Will begin to explore toys and objects using their mouth as well as their fingers. 1-3: is able to recognise routines of the day ie bath time. Enjoys pop-up and posting toys. Will start to play with building bricks and doing simple jigsaw puzzles. Pretend pay with farm animals, small world play, teddies etc. has an interest in mark-making, painting and books. 4-7: will have concentration when an activity has caught their interest. Has the ability to count and do simple calculations. Will begin to read books silently. 7-12: will start to problem solve ie how to play cooperatively. Has understanding of more abstract concepts. 13-19: will have high level skills like using the computer.
d. • Social, emotional and behavioural
0-1: babies will have close contact with the carer. Fleeting smiles when asleep. Enjoying bath time. Smiles of delight when they are playing with their primary carer. Will try to stay near their parent or carer. 1-3: has the need to stay near their parents or carer and anxiety if strangers approach or handle them. Will have an interest in other children, may show signs of temper and frustration. Parallel play, so playing next to another child rather than playing with the other child. Will slowly begin to play alongside other children. 4-7: cooperative play between other children along with odd squabble and argument. Will respond well to adult praise and recognition. Will have some...