Types of Needs & Malthus Theory

Topics: Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Motivation, Psychology Pages: 8 (2281 words) Published: December 7, 2010
What is a need?
* Require as useful, just, or proper.
* A condition requiring relief.
* Anything that is necessary but lacking.
* A state of extreme poverty or destitution.
Positive, GNMENT 1hunger that compels action for its satisfaction. Needs range from basic survival needs (common to all human beings) satisfied by necessities, to cultural, intellectual, and social needs (varying from place to place and age group to age group) satisfied by necessaries. Needs are finite but, in contrast, wants (which spring from desires or wishes) are boundless. A need is something that is necessary for organisms to live a healthy life. Needs are distinguished from wants because a deficiency would cause a clear negative outcome, such as dysfunction or death. Needs can be objective and physical, such as food, or they can be subjective and psychological, such as the need for self-esteem. On a societal level, needs are sometimes controversial. Understanding needs and wants is an issue in the fields of politics, social science, and philosophy.

Concepts of need
There is a considerable amount of complex literature related to the subject of need. Bradshaw's (1972) Typology of Needs provides a useful starting point as he splits the concept of need into four different types.

1. Normative need
This is defined by an expert or professional and relates to established standards and protocols. This type of need is often highlighted when a standard needs to be met or maintained.

2. Felt need
This concerns a need identified by individuals or groups, which is equated to what people want.

3. Expressed need
This is a felt need that is turned into an expressed request which is then initiated via some form of action or demand. This often concerns access to resources or services in order to meet the need.

4. Comparative need
This is defined by comparing the needs of similar groups and using the information to establish parity where possible.


The basic needs approach is one of the major approaches to the measurement of absolute poverty. It attempts to define the absolute minimum resources necessary for long-term physical well-being, usually in terms of consumption goods. The poverty line is then defined as the amount of income required to satisfy those needs.A traditional list of immediate "basic needs" is food (including water), shelter, and clothing. Many modern lists emphasize the minimum level of consumption of 'basic needs' of not just food, water, and shelter, but also sanitation, education, and healthcare. Different agencies use different lists. In the development discourse, the basic needs model focuses on the measurement of what is believed to be an eradicable level of poverty. Development programs following the basic needs approach do not invest in economically productive activities that will help a society carry its own weight in the future, rather it focuses on allowing the society to consume just enough to rise above the poverty line and meet its basic needs. These programs focus more on subsistence than fairness. Nevertheless, in terms of "measurement", the basic needs or absolute approach is important. ACQUIRED NEED

Need are shaped over time by our experiences over time. Most of these fall into three general categories of needs: * Achievement.
* Affiliation.
* Power.

Acquired Needs Theory is also known as the Three-Need Theory or Learned Need Theory. We have different preferences
We will tend have one of these needs that affects us more powerfully than others and thus affects our behaviors: * Achievers seek to excel and appreciate frequent recognition of how well they are doing. They will avoid low risk activities that have no chance of gain. They also will avoid high risks where there is a significant chance of failure. * Affiliation seekers look for harmonious relationships with other people. They will thus tend...
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