Type O Blood

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Jessica Sidney
GOB 2 1-2:15

Type O Blood

“It is a well-known fact that most of our body is made up of water, and this water is what makes up the volume of our blood” (Buzzle.com). Blood is an extremely complex, living tissue in our bodies that contains many cell types and proteins. We might think that blood is blood and it’s all the same, but that is not the case. There are distinct differences that are visible in blood under a microscope. During the early 20th century these differences in blood were classified by a famous Austrian scientist by the name of Karl Landsteiner, who ended up winning a noble prize for his achievements. During his observing of blood under the microscope he discovered that there were two extremely different chemical molecules present on the red blood cells. Types of distinct antigen/molecule which are substances that can trigger an immune response if they are foreign to the body called agglutinin were noticed in the blood attached to the surface of the red blood cells, with either a positive or negative for Rh protein. Agglutinins are proteins that are protectors of our bodies responsible for ensuring that only the blood cells suitable for our blood type exist in our bodies. Karl Landsteiner labeled one chemical molecule as A and one as B, later being classified as type A blood and type B blood. Those classification and observations eventually led to the discovery of four possible combinations of alleles in our blood from our genes that are inherited from each parent; A, B, A/B, and O. Everyone has a blood type that is established before they are even born, it all just depends on the gene we receive from our mother, and the gene we receive from our father. “The A and B antigen molecules on the surface of red blood cells are produced by two different enzymes. These two enzymes are encoded by different versions, or alleles, of the same gene: A and B…A third version of this gene, the O allele, and codes for a protein that is not...
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