Total Quality Management

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Table of contents

List of figures………………………………………………………….iii

1. Introduction………………………………………………………1

2. The Foundations of TQM………………………………………..2

1. Quality……………………………………………………2 2. Evolution of TQM……………………………………….2

3. Relevance and practice of TQM…………………………………3

4. Costs of quality………………………………………………….6

5. Quality standard and Awards……………………………………7

6. Implementation of TQM………………………………………...8

1. Key elements of TQM……………………………………9 2. Implementation issues……………………………………12

7. Conclusion………………………………………………………12

Appendix…………………………………………………………….13

Bibliography…………………………………………………………14

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List of Figures

1. Foundations of TQM……………………………………………….4

2. The PDCA cycle……………………………………………………5

3. Cost of quality model………………………………………………6

4. THE EFQM Excellence model…………………………………….8

5. Key elements of TQM……………………………………………..9

6. Framework for TQM implementation…………………………….11

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1.0 Introduction

In today’s world, organisations need to compete in order to survive in the marketplace and quality has been identified as the most important basis for this competition (Oakland, 2003). There is hardly any organisation that does not know the importance of quality management to remain competitive and meet customers’ expectations. The major challenge however lies in the implementation of quality management.

The concept of quality management was pioneered by American gurus such as Armand Feigenbaum, Joseph Juran and Edwards Demin. They took the message to Japan in the early 1950s. The Japanese companies popularized the concept of TQM; first undertaking its commercial applications after the concept was extended and further developed by Japanese gurus notably Genichi Taguchi, Kaoru Ishikawa and Shigeo Shingo (Beckford, 2002). Embracing quality management practices in the 1950s changed Japan’s notoriety for cheap imitation products to being recognized for cheap high quality ones. This paved way for Japan’s imports into Europe and USA, bringing about the revival of the ailing Japan’s industrial system. The success in Japan’s industry caused a revolution in the west during the early 1980s and Total Quality Management (TQM) became a standard global practice.

What is TQM? TQM is basically a metamorphosis of the traditional quality approach of inspection-based quality control and quality assurance control. It is a holistic approach to quality management with particular attention to the role played by the people within an organisation and different parts of the organisation to promote quality. (Stack, Chambers & Johnston, 2007).

The aim of TQM is to help organisations achieve excellent performance by getting it right the first time. Its relevance to the contemporary business environment is stressed by the establishment of International standardization organisation (ISO) 9000, which is the internationally recognized standard for quality management systems. There are also three major bodies which give awards to organisations in recognition of best quality management practices. These include the ‘Demin Prize’ in Japan, the ‘Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award’ in the U.S. and the ‘European Foundation for Quality Management’ (EFQM) award.

This report seeks to examine the role and usefulness of TQM to the contemporary business environment and how it can be successfully implemented and improved upon by organisations.

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2 The Foundations of TQM

1. Quality

When high quality is embedded in manufacturing, it will lead to increased sales, hence, higher revenue and reduced production costs through better efficiency. We can therefore conclude that the success of any organisation is tied to the quality of its products or services. In operations, the quality of a good or service is viewed as a consistent conformance to customers’ expectation whereas from the customers’ viewpoint, quality is what the consumer perceives the product or...
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