DEFINITIONS FROM TOPO MAPS
REPRESENTATIVE FRACTION (RF): It is the ratio between the distances on the map to its corresponding distance on actual ground. The RF on this map is 1:50,000.
2. SCALE : Scale is the ratio between the distance of any two points on the map and the actual distance of the same points on the ground. The scale of the given map extract is 2 cm: 1 km or 1:50,000.
3. CONTOUR: Contours are imaginary lines drawn on maps, joining all places with the same height above sea level.
4. CONTOUR INTERVAL: The interval between two consecutive contours is called contour interval (*it is a constant 20 mts in your toposheets.)
5. INDEX CONTOUR: Contour lines are thickened at regular intervals to make it easier to read contours. For example at every 100 mts the contour line is made darker. The darker lines are called Index Contours.
6. TRIANGULATED HEIGHT: It is the height of a place which has been calculated using trigonometry, represented by a small triangle e.g. - 540
7. SPOT HEIGHT: The height of random places between contours shown with a dot. Eg - .425
8. BENCH MARK - Height of a place actually marked on a stone pillar, rock or shown on a building as a permanent reference. It is written as BM 200 m.
9. RELATIVE HEIGHT: Relative height is the height of a feature with reference to the height of the surrounding land and NOT to sea level. It is represented by the height with a small ‘r’ eg –12r.
10. ROCK OUTCROP: It is a portion of rock jutting above the surface of the earth.
11. SHEET ROCK: Large areas of rock where the overlying soil layers have been eroded and removed due to mechanical weathering.
9 STONY WASTE : A large area usually in arid/semi arid regions where the finer sand/soil has blown away leaving a surface covered with boulders, stones and pebbles.
10. BROKEN GROUND: A relief feature found mostly in dry regions around rivers and streams. It is land around river,...