AP Human Geography

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AP Human Geography Exam
Vocabulary Definitions
Unit 1: Nature and Perspectives
(Ch. 1 & 2 in Barron's
Pattison’s Four Traditions (1964): W.D. Pattison
            -earth-science: physical geography (not one of the Five Themes) -locational: spatial tradition (location)
-man-land: human/environmental interaction
-area-studies: regional geography
Five Themes of Geography (1986): GENIP
            -location: position; situation of people and things             -human/environmental interaction: reciprocal relationship b/w humans & env.             -region: area on Earth’s surface marked by a degree of homogeneity (uniformity) of some phenomenon             -place: uniqueness of a location (or similarity of two or more locales); phenomena within an area             -movement: mobility of people, goods and ideas; phenomena between areas Anthropogenic: Caused or produced by humans

Absolute location: Position on Earth’s surface using the coordinate system of longitude (that runs from North to South Pole) and latitude (that runs parallel to the equator).  Relative location: Position on Earth’s surface relative to other features. (Ex: My house is east of I-75).  Absolute distance: Exact measurement of the physical space between two places.  Relative distance: Approximate measurement of the physical space between two places.  Site: The physical character of place; what is found at the location and why it is significant. Situation: The location of a place relative to other places. Region:

-Formal Region- (uniform, homogeneous) or homogenous region is an area within which everyone shares in common one or mare distinctive characteristics.  The shared feature could be a cultural value such as a common language, or an environmental climate.  -Functional Region- (nodal) Area organized around a node or focal point.  The characteristic chosen to define a functional region dominates at a central focus or node and diminishes in importance outward.  This region is tied to the central point by transportation or communication systems or by economic or functional associations.  -Perceptual Region- (vernacular) is a place that people believe exists as a part of their cultural identity.  Such regions emerge from peoples informal sense of place rather than from scientific models developed through geographic thought. (Often identified using a mental map- which is an internal representation of a portion of Earths surface). Many "belts" fit this description ... cotton belt (what used to be dominated by agriculture, and is often referred to as the New South), Bible belt, sun belt, rust belt, ... Environmental perception: a person’s idea or image of a place; may often be inaccurate. Cultural trait: a single element of normal practice in a culture (e.g., wearing a turban) Culture complex: a combination of related cultural traits (e.g., prevailing modes of dress; nationalism) Culture hearth: The region from which innovative ideas originate.  This relates to the important concept of the spreading of ideas from one area to another (diffusion). Must be viewed in the context of time … -Ancient culture hearth: Fertile Crescent, Indus Valley, Chang & Yellow River Valley (China), Nile River Valley and Delta, Meso-America (origin of farming developed during the First Agricultural Revolution beginning around 12,000 years ago). -Modern culture hearth: Europe, North America, Japan (origin and focus of the Industrial Revolution beginning in the early 1800s after the onset of the Second Agricultural Revolution). Cultural landscape (built environment): Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.  This is the essence of how humans interact with nature.  Sequent occupance: The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape.  This is an important concept in geography because it symbolizes how humans interact with their surroundings.  Cultural diffusion: The process of...
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