TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
1. TOOLS IN PUBLIC RELATIONS
2. PUBLICITY MEDIA
3. TYPES OF PUBLICITY
4. OTHER FORMS OF PUBLICITY
5. TECHNIQUES USED TO SOLVE PR PROBLEMS
6. PR PROCESS
7. ISSUE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (New Jersey Physicians case)
8. CRISIS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ( Mattel, Pepsi, Bhopal Gas Tragedy and Exxon case)
9. MODELS IN PR : Open System, Cybernetics and Roles of PR.
Tools in Public Relations
Publicity is the deliberate attempt to manage the public's perception of a subject. The subjects of publicity include people (for example, politicians and performing artists), goods and services, organizations of all kinds, and works of art or entertainment. It helps a company to establish and maintain relations with its customers n other public. It gives an insight into the company and its products and services and the extent to which the company is able to offer the same. It also shows the spread of the company in different places and also how much a company understands its customers and looks after building a mutual understanding.
The major publicity media used these days by the various organisations’ are newspapers, magazines, radio and television broadcasting.
Newspapers are the major medium of publicity. They are read by millions, enjoy reader confidence, influence public opinion, appear regularly, and intensively cover local and regional areas. They appeal to the special interests of women, business executives, sports enthusiasts and others through special sections providing opportunities for product publicity on these subjects.
Magazines are an important medium for product news, feature stories, and pictorial publicity. They tend to be read leisurely and thoroughly. The typical issue will be read by several persons and will likely be preserved for future reference. Magazines, which afford space to tell a complete story, are particularly suitable for service or educational publicity articles. The attractive appearance, good paper, and fine colour reproduction of magazines make them ideal for picture publicity.
• RADIO AND TELEVISION BROADCASTING
Radio and television stations broadcast two types of publicity programs: the commercial programs, sponsored and paid for; and the sustaining broadcast, sponsored by the station or network at its own expense. They increase awareness to a greater extent due to both audio and visual capabilities and also remain in the mind of the publics for a longer duration of time.
TYPES OF PUBLICITY
The most common type of publicity is news of local, sectional, or national interest, which is prepared and distributed to the news media by publicity departments. There are two categories of news publicity, spontaneous news and planned news.
Spontaneous news publicity originates from an unplanned event, such as a strike, major accident, fire, explosion, etc. Publicity for such events is handled by a planned procedure. News media are notified, and they may send reporters, photographers, etc to the news source.
Planned news publicity originates in the day to day developments and occurrences within organizations which maybe of news value and public interest. News releases are prepared and distributed to media by a headquarters public relations staff, a local plant public relations manager, or a regional public relations officer.
• BUSINESS FEATURE ARTICLES
Business feature articles, also known as case histories or trade press stories, are an important type of publicity published by business, trade, and technical media and prepared by industrial firms to support their marketing objectives. A business feature defines problems common to an industry and describes solutions to these problems by a particular concern that uses the product of the company preparing the publicity....
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