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T&D 飛訊第113 期發行日期:100 年02 月16 日
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Organizational Change and Development
Jeaw-Mei Chen∗/Mein-Woei Suen∗∗/Mei- Jong Lin∗∗∗/Fu-An Shieh∗∗∗∗ Abstract
Organizational change is an important issue in organizations. It is actually a process in which an organization optimizes performance as it works toward its ideal state. Organizational change occurs as a reaction to an ever-changing environment, a response to a current crisis situation, or is triggered by a leader. Successful organizational change is not merely a process of adjustment, but also requires sufficient managing capabilities. However, there are many topics to be considered to achieve successful change. Hence, this paper discusses the causes of organizational change, its elements, approaches, process, resistance, management, and finally the possible factors leading to its breakdown.

Keywords: organizational change, organizational development, causes of organizational change, processes of organizational change, resistance & management of organizational change
∗ Member of Examination Yuan, R.O.C & Professor, Department of Psychology, National Chengchi University, R.O.C.
∗∗ Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Chung Shan Medical University, R. O. C. & Research Consultant, Department of Medical Education, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, R. O. C. ∗∗∗ Associate Professor, Department of Applied English, JinWen University of Science & Technology, R. O. C. ∗∗∗∗ Graduate Student, University of La Verne, U.S.A. T&D 飛訊第113 期發行日期:100 年02 月16 日

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Based on a five year survey conducted by the world-renowned McKinsey consulting firm (Isern, & Pung, 2007), out of the 1536 companies that underwent organizational change, only 38% of the company managers claimed that the process succeeded in increasing work performance. Regarding long term health goals (such as increasing ability, better customer relations, supplier relations, positive work culture), only 30% of the managers associated these with organization change. Hence, the goals of organizational change are rather multi-faceted. The most common goal stated by over 50% of the interviewees is “minimizing costs”. Other goals include bettering the firm, mergence, crisis intervention, or overcoming competition. Seemingly, successful organizational change is not merely a process of adjustment, but also requires sufficient managing capabilities.

The following discussion attempts to understand the causes of organizational change and its elements, approaches, process, resistance and management, and finally the possible factors leading to its breakdown.

Why does an organization need organizational change?
What is organizational change? It is a process in which an organization optimizes performance as it works toward becoming its ideal state. Why does an organization need organizational change (Jones, 2004)? From a passive perspective, organizational change occurs as a reaction to an ever-changing environment or as a response to a current crisis situation. On the other hand, a more proactive viewpoint is that it is triggered by a progressive manager. Furthermore, organizational change is especially evident when the organization T&D 飛訊第113 期發行日期:100 年02 月16 日

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has just undergone a transfer of executive power (Haveman, Russo & Meyer, 2001).
Van de Ven and Poole (1995) proposed that the causes of organization change can be explained by one of the following theories: teleological theory, life-cycle theory, and dialectical theory. The teleological perspective believes that organizational change is an attempt to achieve an ideal state through a continuous process of goal-setting, execution, evaluation, and restructuring. Life-cycle theory claims that the organization is an entity that depending on the external environment, cycles through stages of birth, growth, maturation, and declination. Dialectical theory hypothesizes that the organization is like a multi-cultural society...
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