Three Mistakes of My Life

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  • Topic: Thyroid, Thyroid hormone, Hyperthyroidism
  • Pages : 10 (2458 words )
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  • Published : February 3, 2013
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ST.JOSEPH’S CO-ED SCHOOL

PROJECT ON BIOLOGY

HORMONAL DISORDER OF THYROID GLAND

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that SIDDHI AGRAWAL of class XI A
Has completed a project in biology on the topic
HORMONAL DISORDER: THYROID in the session
2012-13 under the guidance of DEVAMITA TEACHER
as per the CBSE guidelines

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I SIDDHI AGRAWAL express my sincere gratitude
Towards our biology teacher Respected Mrs.Devamita
Sen, and to my respected parents for their
Special cooperation extended to me in completing this
Project
I am also grateful to my colleague.

INDEX
I. INTRODUCTION
II. THYROID GLAND
III. ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND
IV. EMBRYOLOGY OF THYROID GLAND
V. PHYSIOLOGY OF THYROID GLAND
VI. ROLE OF HORMONES
VII. TRIIODOTHYRONINE(T3)
VIII. THYROXINE(T4)
IX. THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE(TSH)
X. THYROTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE(TRH)
XI. DISORDERS RELATED TO THYROID GLAND
* HYPOTHYROIDISM
a) INTRODUCTION
b) SYMPTOMS
c) TREATMENT
d) CASE STUDY
* HYPERTHYROIDISM
a) INTRODUCTION
b) SYMPTOMS
c) TREATMENT
d) CASE STUDY
XII.CONCLUSION

INTRODUCTION
The endocrine system is the system of glands, each of which secretes different types of hormones directly into the bloodstream to regulate the body. The endocrine system is an information signal system like the nervous system, yet its effects and mechanism are classifiably different. Hormones are substances (chemical mediators) released from endocrine tissue into the bloodstream where they travel to target tissue and generate a response. Hormones regulate various human functions, including metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sleep, and mood. * Endocrine system includes

* Hypothalamus
* Pineal body (epiphysis)
* Pituitary gland (hypophysis)
* Thyroid
* Adrenal glands
* Parathyroid
* Testes
* Ovaries
Among the above glands I am choosing thyroid gland for this project. THYROID GLAND
The thyroid gland is one of the largest endocrine glands. The thyroid gets its name from the Greek word for "shield", due to the shape of the related thyroid cartilage. The thyroid gland is found in the neck, below the thyroid cartilage The thyroid gland controls how quickly the body uses energy, makes proteins, and controls how sensitive the body is to other hormones. It does this by producing thyroid hormones, like triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine also known as tetraiodothyronine (T4). These hormones regulate the rate of metabolism The thyroid also produces calcitonin, which plays a role in calcium homeostasis. Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary, which itself is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) produced by the hypothalamus. ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND

The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped organ and is composed of two cone-like lobes or wings, right lobe and left lobe, connected via the isthmus. The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands, weighing 2-3 grams in neonates and 18-60 grams in adults, and is increased in pregnancy. The organ is situated on the anterior side of the neck, lying against and around the larynx and trachea, reaching posteriorly the oesophagus and carotid sheath. It starts cranially at the oblique line on the thyroid cartilage and extends inferiorly to approximately the fifth or sixth tracheal ring. The thyroid gland is covered by a thin fibrous sheath, the capsula glandulae thyroidea, composed of an internal and external layer. The external layer is anteriorly continuous with the lamina pretrachealis fasciae cervicalis and posteriorolaterally continuous with the carotid sheath....
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