Endocrine System - Mayville State University

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Endocrine System
Chapter 13 Study Guide
Name ( )
Revision 2
OVERVIEW The endocrine system, like the nervous system, controls body activities to maintain a relatively constant internal environment. The methods used by these two systems are different. This chapter describes the difference between endocrine and exocrine glands, the location of the endocrine glands, and the hormones they secrete (objectives 1 and 6). It explains the nature of hormones, the substances that function as hormones, how hormones affect target tissues, how the secretion of hormones is controlled by a negative feedback system and the nervous system, the general function of each hormone, and the result of too little or too much of each hormone (objectives 2-5, 7, and 8). In addition, the text distinguishes between physical and psychological stress, and describes how the endocrine system mediates the stress response (objectives 9 and 10). A knowledge of the function of the endocrine system is basic to the understanding of how metabolic processes are regulated to meet the changing needs of the body.

I. Aids to Understanding Words Define the following word parts. -crin ( to secrete )
diuret- ( to pass urine )
endo- ( inside )
exo- (outside )
hyper- ( above )
hypo- (below )
lact- ( milk )
para- ( beside )
toc-( birth )
-tropic (influencing )
vas-( vessel )

II. General Characteristics of the Endocrine System

A. The endocrine glands secrete ( hormones )
B. Hormones diffuse from ( interstitial fluid )into ( bloodstream ) and eventually act on ( cells ) C. Paracrine secretions are ( locar hormones that enter the interstitial fluid but afeect only neighboring cells ) D. Autocrine secretions are ( that affect only secreting cells ) E. Exocrine glands secrete substances into ( skin surface ) F. Endocrine glands and their hormones control (metabolic processes ) G. Endocrine hormones also play vital roles in ( reproduction , development , and growth ) H. The larger endocrine glands are ( pituitary , thyroid , parathyroid , andrenal glands and pancreas )

III. Hormone Action

A. Introduction
1. Hormones only affect their ( target cells )
2. Target cells have ( ) for ( )
B. Control Sources
1. The hypothalamus controls ( the anterior putitary ) gland’s release of tropic hormones. 2. Tropic hormones are those that stimulate ( endocrine glands to release hormones ). 3. An example of an endocrine organ directly stimulated by the nervous system is the ( adrenal medulla ). 4. Some endocrine glands respond to changes in the ( composition of internal environment ). 5. As a result of ( negative feedback ), hormone levels remain relatively stable. Quicklink: Hormonal Communication

(Note: Quicklinks will download short animations which are located in the content area of the course website. The material covered in them is (usually) also found within text.) 6. Hormonal communication usually begins in the ( )

7. The posterior pituitary releases ADH in response to dehydration detected by ( osmoreceptors ) 8. ADH target cells are found in the ( ) and the ( ).
B. Chemistry of Hormones
1. Introduction
a. Steroid hormones are synthesized from( cholesterol )
b. Nonsteroid hormones are synthesized from ( tyrosine )
2. Steroid Hormones
a. Steroids are ( lipids that include complex rings of carbon and hydrogen atoms ) b. Examples of steroid hormones are ( testosterone , estrogen ) 3. Nonsteroid Hormones
a. Examples of hormones called amines are ( norepinephrine , epinephrine ) b. Protein hormones are composed of (long chains amino acids ) c. Examples of protein hormones are ( PTH , GH , PRS )

d. Hormones called glycoproteins are produced by ( anterior pituitary gland ) e. Peptide hormones are ( short chains of amino acids )
f. Peptide hormones come from ( posterior pituitary gland ) g. Prostaglandins are ( paracrine substance ) and...
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