Anatomy 224 Endocrine

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The Endocrine System

Exercise 1: The Pituitary Gland
obseRvations

A. Please describe in detail the structures and features you observed on the pituitary gland slide.

The Pituitary Gland Slides The Anterior Pituitary Gland was darker than the Posterior Pituitary Gland. In the Anterior Pituitary Gland Slide you can see Chromophobes and Acidophiles. Not super easy to distinguish which is which though. The Posterior Pituitary Gland slide showed Pitulcytes (Neuroglia) as light purple cells and the Herring Bodies are very ligjt pink with a lot of white clear space surrounding.

Data Table 1: Do some research and fill in the data table below.| Hormone| Functions|
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)| ACTH stimulates the cortex to secrete hormones called glucocorticoids. Like cortisol. Which regulates glucose, protein, and fat metabolism, and response to stress. | Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)| ADH regulates water retention in the kidneys, reduces urine volume, and helps prevent dehydration. Also a brain neurotransmitter.| Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)| The pituitary secretes FSH. It stimulates the sex hormone estrogen and development of follicles in the ovaries. And Sperm production in the testes.| Growth hormone (GH)| GH promotes mitosis and cellular differentiation. GH does not have specificity like other hormones. | Luteinizing hormone (LH)| LH stimulates ovulation of eggs from the follicles developed by FSH in women. In males LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone| Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH)| Fetal hormone determining the color of skin or hair. | Oxytocin| Released by posterior pituitary to stimulate labor, milk release, possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual affection and mother infant bonding| Prolactin (PRL)| Stimulates milk synthesis. Is also found in testes.| Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)| Thyrotropes in pituitary secrets and stimulates growth of pituitary and stimulates the release of thyroid hormones. |

Questions

A. Describe the function of the endocrine system.
To create and distribute the hormones needed to maintain homeostasis. The endocrine system is a collection of glands and organs that secret hormones into the blood to create specific actions in the target cells or organs.

B. What is a gland?
Glands are organs that secrete chemical substances for use in the surrounding tissues or for release into the blood stream. Glands are endocrine or exocrine. Endocrine= no ducts Exocrine= ducts.

C. Describe how negative feedback regulates the secretion of most hormones. Hormones are controlled by negative feedback because the amount of a substance in a system regulates its own concentration. When a receptors concentration of a hormone rises to a level above its set point the feedback axis a series of steps is taken within the effectors system to cause the concentration to go back down to the set point. And vise versa in the opposite direction

D. Why is the pituitary gland called the “master endocrine gland”? The pituitary gland is the master gland because it has a lot of influence on the rest of the body. The hypothalamus tells it what to do and it sends its signals to the other organs and glands.

Exercise 2: The Thyroid Gland
obseRvations

A. Please describe in detail the structures and features you observed on the thyroid gland slide

The Thyroid Gland slide was colorful with large pink Coloid, The Principal cells are small little ball shaped cells and they are numerous. There are also Parafollicular cells and Thyroid Follicles.

Questions

A. What is the overall function of the thyroid gland?
It regulates the body’s metabolism.

B. What is the function of thyroxin?
Thyroxin is T4 it stimulates oxygen consumption. It is often converted to T3 by cells.

C. What is the function of triiodothyronine?
T3 is a thyroid hormone that is produced in small...
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