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Chapter 4

Literature Review

a) Student Performance
Galiher (2006) and Darling (2005), used GPA to
measure student performance because they main focus
in on the student performance for the particular
semester. Some other researchers used test results or
previous year result since they are studying performance
for the specific subject or year (Hijazi and Naqvi, 2006
and Hake, 1998).
b) Communication
Many researchers has been discussed the
different factors that affects the student academic
performance in their research. There are two types of
factors that affect the students’ academic performance.

These are internal and external classroom factors and

these factors strongly affect the students’ performance.

Internal classroom factors includes students

competence in English, class schedules, class size,
English text books, class test results, learning facilities, homework, environment of the class, complexity of the
course material, teachers role in the class, technology
used in the class and exams systems. External
classroom factors include extracurricular activities,
family problems, work and financial, social and other
problems. Research studies shows that students’
performance depends on many factors such as learning
facilities, gender and age differences, etc. that can
affect student performance (Hansen, Joe B., 2000).
Harb and El-Shaarawi (2006) found that the most
important factor with positive effect on students'
performance is student's competence in English. If the

students have strong communication skills and have
strong grip on English, it increases the performance of
the students. The performance of the student is affected
by communication skills; it is possible to see
communication as a variable which may be positively related to performance of the student in open learning. A
major distinction of this study from previous studies is
that it focuses on open learning (Abdullah...
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