Theory of Cultural Determinism

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Philippine Normal University
College of Education
Department of Professional Education
Taft Avenue, Manila

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
A Term Paper in Professional Education 13

Submitted to:
Dr. Camilla C. Gonzales
Professor

Submitted by:
Bigtacion, Anne Czarina D.
IV-20 BSE Social Science

Semester II 2012-2013
November 20, 2012

MULTICULTURAL EDUCATION
(A Development in Education)

I. INTRODUC TION
In a world experiencing rapid change, and where cultural, political, economic and social upheaval challenges traditional ways of life, education has a major role to play in promoting social cohesion and peaceful coexistence. Through programs that encourage discussion between students of different cultures, beliefs and religions, education can make an important and meaningful contribution to sustainable and tolerant societies. (UNESCO)

The issue of multicultural education is of paramount importance in the twenty-first century (Banks & Banks, 2001).  Diversity in schools and universities has become progressively more reflected.  Students of color comprised thirty-five percent of students in grades 1-12 in 1995.  It is anticipated that students of color will make up about 48 percent of the nation's school-age youth by the year 2020.       Poverty is also becoming an increasingly important issue that affects quality of education.  Also important to consider is the fact that although the nation's students are becoming increasingly diverse, most of the nation's teachers are White, middle-class, and female.  Specifically, about 87 percent are White, and 72 percent are female (Banks & Banks, 2001).       These demographic, social, and economic trends have important implications for education (Banks & Banks, 2001).  Multicultural education is intended to decrease race, ethnicity, class, and gender divisions by helping all students attain the knowledge, attitudes, and skills they need in order to become active citizens in a democratic society and participate in social change (Valdez, 1999).  It is imperative that teachers learn how to recognize, honor, and incorporate the personal abilities of students into their teaching strategies (Gay, 2000).  If this is done, then school achievement will improve.

II. Definition of Key Terms
Discrimination. The unjust or prejudicial treatment of different categories of people or things, esp. on the grounds of race, age, or sex. Recognition and understanding of the difference between one thing and another. Mobilization. A process whereby a group of people have transcended their differences to meet on equal terms in order to facilitate a participatory decision-making process. In other words it can be viewed as a process which begins a dialogue among members of the community to determine who, what, and how issues are decided, and also to provide an avenue for everyone to participate in decisions that affect their lives. Multicultural Education. A social or educational theory that encourages interest in many cultures within a society rather than in only a mainstream culture. Pluralism. A state of society in which members of diverse ethnic, racial, religious, or social groups maintain and develop their traditional culture or special interest within the confines of a common civilization Racism. The belief that a particular race is superior or inferior to another, that a person’s social and moral traits are predetermined by his or her inborn biological characteristics. Racial separatism is the belief, most of the time based on racism, that different races should remain segregated and apart from one another. Sexism. a form of discrimination based on gender. While many people use the term specifically to describe discrimination against women, it can also affect men, intersexuals, and transsexuals, along with individuals who eschew traditional gender roles and identities, such as people who identify as genderqueer. Stereotype. A standardized image or...
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