Theories of International Relations by Malik

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THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1-Behavioralism:-
Behavioralism is an important approach among the different approaches of international relations. This approach is actually generalization. They study a phenomenon generally. They say that we can not get factual knowledge of a phenomenon that we study rather we can get causal knowledge of the phenomenon. Behavioralists isolate the factors to study so we can call them holistic. They believed in careful study that based on analytical methods. They say that characteristic of a phenomenon are qualitative. If a behavioralist studies the democracy of different countries, he will study all the cases generally. In his study he will separate all the factors affecting the democracy and then study them separately. Following are some important points of this approach. 1- Behavioralists argue that in order to develop the scientific understanding of the social phenomena we should pay attention to their apparent behavior and those aspects which can be experienced through our senses and can be measured in qualitative terms. They do not believe in quantitative study of the phenomenon. They argue that things are as they are visible there is no difference in their apparent and inner structure or behavior. 2- Behavioralists believe that social phenomenon is similar in nature with the natural phenomena. Therefore the mathematical and quantitative approaches of natural sciences should also be applied to study and understand the social phenomenon. As social phenomenon is the phenomenon which is procreated by human beings by altering the natural phenomenon in such a way that its use value is increased for human living. They think that by altering the natural phenomenon the nature of the actual material used is not changed so the basic characteristics will be same in both natural and social phenomenon. 3- Behavioralists argue that social phenomenon like natural phenomenon is governed by the generalized rules of behavior. Therefore to understand the reality and causal factors of the social phenomenon we have to study all the cases of a social phenomenon at the same time and only those factors which are common to all the cases of a social phenomenon should be considered the social factors of that phenomenon. They ignore the differences while studying different cases of a social phenomenon and only consider the differences. As they believe that social phenomenon is similar in nature with natural phenomenon so they apply general rules to all the cases of a social phenomenon so they have to ignore the differences between different cases of s social phenomenon otherwise they cannot apply general rules. 4- Behavioralists believe that social groups or social collectivities are made of the individual units. Therefore by studying the characteristics of individual units and by adding those characteristics we can understand the characteristics of the social groups or the social collectivities. They actually do not study a social phenomenon as a whole rather they split it into its units and then study all the units separately. After studying all the units separately they then add the characteristics of all the units to get the knowledge about the phenomenon as a whole. 5- Behavioralists argue that in order to develop scientific knowledge of the social phenomenon we should study only its observable behavior rather than the normative and formalistic aspects of the social phenomenon. This is so because the normative and the formalistic factors bring biases that hinder the real understanding of the social phenomenon. By keeping in mind the normative and formalistic behavior of a social phenomenon we cannot study it objectively, and by studying a social phenomenon subjectively we cannot get complete and true knowledge about the phenomenon. 6- Behavioralists believe that individual case study method would not help to develop scientific...
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