The Toyota Production System

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The Toyota Production System
High Quality and Low Cost
Readings; g; James Womack, Daniel T. Jones and Daniel Roos, The Machine that Changed the World, 1990, Ch 3 and 4 J T. Black “The Factory with a Future” Ch 2 & 4 Michael McCoby, “Is There a Best Way to Build a Car?” HBR Nov-Dec 1997 1

COST VS DEFECTS

Three Major Mfg Systems from 1800 t 2000 f to

Machine tools, specialized machine tools, Taylorism, SPC, CNC, CAD/CAM

1800 Interchangeable Parts at U.S. Armories

1900 Mass Production at Ford

2000 Toyota Production d System

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REFERENCES ON THE TOYOTA PRODUCTION SYSTEM; Taiichi Ohno, “The Toyota Production System” Productivity Press 1988 Shigeo Shingo, “A Study of the Toyota Production System” Productivity Press 1989 Yasuhiro Monden, “Toyota Production System”, 1st Ed 1983 Hayes, Wheelwright and Clark, “Dynamic Manufacturing” Free Press 1988 Womack and Jones, “Lean Thinking” Simon and Schuster, 1996 1990 3

Performance Observations
• early observations of reliability after some reliability, initial start-up problems • IMVP got actual factory level data – assembly time – di t l b h direct labor hours f assembly for bl – level of automation

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Consumer Reports

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Gains of imports

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Summary of Assembly Plant Characteristics, Volume Producers, 1989 (Average for Plants in Each Region) Japanese in Japan Performance: P f Producvitity (hours/Veh.) Quality (assembly defects/100 vehicles) Layout: Space (sq.ft./vehicle/yr) S ( ft / hi l / ) Size of Repair Area (as % of assembly space) Inventories(days for 8 sample parts) Work Force: % of Work Force in Teams Job Rotation (0 = none, 4 = frequent) Suggestions/Employee Number of Job Classes Training of New Production Workers (hours) Absenteeism Automation: Welding (% of direct steps) Painting(% of direct steps) Assembly(% of direct steps) 16.8 60 Japanese in North America 21.2 65 American in North America 25.1 82.3 36.2 97 All Europe

5.7 57 4.1 0.2

9.1 91 4.9 1.6

7.8 78 12.9 2.9

7.8 78 14.4 2

69.3 3 61.6 11.9 380.3 5

71.3 2.7 1.4 8.7 370 4.8

17.3 0.9 0.4 67.1 46.4 11.7

0.6 1.9 0.4 14.8 173.3 12.1

86.2 54.6 1.7

85 40.7 1.1

76.2 33.6 1.2

76.6 38.2 3.1

Source: IMVP World Assembly Plant Survey, 1989, and J. D. Power Initial Quality Survery, 1989

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Cost Vs Defects
Ref. “Machine that Changed th W ld” W R f “M hi th t Ch d the World” Womack, Jones and Roos k J dR

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Cost Vs Automation
Ref. “Machine that Changed the World” Womack, Jones and Roos

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How do you get this kind of performance?
1. 1 Development took at least 30 years 2. Many elements to the system inventory management, JIT Kanban i JIT, K b set-up reduction, SMED cells, one operator/many machines Andon, visual status of factory Kaizen, continuous improvement Poke-Yoke, error checking , g 11

History of the Development of the Toyota Production System P d ti S t ref; Taiichi Ohno 1945
inventory

1975

set-up

cells

Andon
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Womack Jones and Roos
• • • • New Technology? gy
– – – – – – No silver bullet Yes, but integrated with system Not in the N t i th usual sense, systems more fl ibl l t flexible Integration of Tasks (opposite of deskilling) Identification and removal of defects (stop the line!) kaizen – institutionalizing change 13

Automation? Standardized Production? Lean Characteristics?

J T. Black’s 10 Steps p
Ref; JT. Black “Factory with a Future” 1991

1. 2. 3. 4. 4 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Form cells Reduce setup Integrate quality control I t Integrate preventive maintenance t ti i t Level and balance Link cells – KANBAN Reduce WIP Build vendor programs Automate

10. Computerize
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Demand Flow Technology’s 9 Points
1. Product Synchronization y 2. Mixed Model Process Maps 3. Sequence of Events 4. Demand at Capacity 5. Operational Cycle Time 6. Total Product C Cycle Time 7. Line Balancing 8. 8 Kanbans 9. Operational Method Sheets

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J T Black –1 2 T. 1,
1. Form Cells 2. Reduce...
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