The common conception of human beings sees them as unsocialized, irrational and destructive to themselves and others. The client-centred point of view sees people as basically forward thinking, rational and social. Antisocial emotions such as hostility and jealousy are not seen as aspects of human nature which are spontaneous outbursts which need to be controlled but rather as reactions to more basic impulses such as love, belonging and security being frustrated. The person centred perspective sees people as basically cooperative, trustworthy and constructive when freed from defensive behaviours. Individuals are considered to have the capacity to become aware of the factors of their psychological maladjustment and will tend to move towards a state of adjustment. Person Centred Counselling concentrates on qualities of attitudes and relationships, particularly, between therapist and client. Knowledge of key concepts of person centred theory
The organismic self is the true self before it becomes corrupted by the self concept. This true self is only completely intact for a small space of time as infants. An infant’s experience puts them self at the centre of reality Rogers believed that the developing organism strives to make the very best of their existence and responds to the world in an organised way because of their need to become “actualized” this is known as the “actualizing tendency”. Rogers considers that organisms know what is good for them. If we are hungry we find food and we make sure the food tastes good (bad tasting food is likely to be rotten and bad for us). Our evolutionary journey having made clear how to distinguish what taste is good and what is bad. Examples to demonstrate organismic valuing is that Rogers believed if animals are left to their own devices you will find that they eat and drink what is good for them in moderate proportion and you will also generally find that babies tend to like the things that are good for them. We have however created an environment significantly different from the one in which we evolved in this new environment we have refined sugars, chocolate and fizzy drinks to name but a few. All of these things appeal to our organismic valuing but do not serve our “actualization well”. Self concept
The self concept is the term used to describe outside influences on the organismic self. At a certain point in the infant’s development she will differentiate a portion of her world as being experienced separate from herself. This portion of experience is accepted into awareness as the self concept and is composed of perceptions of the characteristics “I” or “me”. The picture of the self concept is built as the infant experiences the world in particular the time spent with others and the way others evaluate her.
With the infants self awareness and the need for satisfaction “the actualizing tendency” comes the need for the “positive regard” from others; when a self-experience of another has a positive impact upon one’s own experiential field resulting in positive regard. Positive Regard is the umbrella term used by Rogers with regards to love, attention, affection and nurturance. This need for the positive regard from others is potent as it is connected to the enhancement of the actualizing organislm. The need for positive regard thus becomes more compelling than the organismic valuing. Introjected values
The evaluations given by others are taken into the forming self concept as if...