* is divided into two sections (Pt. 1 & Pt. 2); each dealing with a poet who represents the English Renaissance (late 15th C. to early 17th C.) * introduces the Renaissance era (cultural and literary aspects). * presents a discussion of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 18 & Donne’s “The Good Morrow” and “Death Be Not Proud”.
English Renaissance ( 1485-1625)
The Renaissance Originated in Italy (14th C.)
influences: Greece & Roman Cultures
- European Renaissance artists:
*Dante wrote The Divine Comedy
*Petrarch wrote lyric poetry in the form of sonnets
*Leonardo Da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, and scientist
in England: 15 (end of the War of Roses)-17th Cs.
*Philip Sidney wrote the first Elizabethan sonnet cycle: Astrophel and Stella
*Edmund Spenser wrote a long epic, The Faerie Queen, in Spenserian stanzas
*Christopher Marlowe popularized pastoral verse (idealizes the rural life)
- Elizabethan era was the height of English Renaissance
Humanism: Mankind was believed capable of earthly perfection.
Optimism: the belief that life was improving for the first time in anyone’s memory
The emergence of the middle Class
-Literature (poetry) of the Renaissance focused topics which relate to religion, classic antiquity, scholarship and politics.
Sonnets also became very popular.
Other poetic forms that were popularized were the lyric, the elegy, the tragedy, and the pastoral.
Near the close of the English Renaissance, John Milton composed his epic Paradise Lost, widely considered the grandest poem in the language
Shakespeare (1564-1616 )
Elizabethan poet and playwright
38 plays & 154 sonnets
Venus and Adonis
The Rape of Lucrece
The Passionate Pilgrim
The Phoenix and the Turtle
A Lover's Complaint
The origins of the sonnet
Sonnet (little song) – (little sound)
Sonneteers (writers of sonnets)
Fixed Form which originated in Europe (Italy)
Conventions of the English Sonnet
14 lines, 4 divisions: three quatrains and a rhymed couplet at the end.
The rhyme scheme in a Shakespearean sonnet is a-b-a-b, c-d-c-d, e-f-e-f, g-g.
The couplet at the end “is usually a commentary on the foregoing, an epigrammatic close”.
Shakespeare's sonnets are a collection of 154 sonnets, dealing with themes such as the passage of time, love, beauty and mortality, first published in a 1609 quarto entitled SHAKE-SPEARES SONNETS. 154 sonnets (a sonnet cycle)
- Main Figures in the sonnets:
1-Fair Youth (1-126): maybe the Earl of Southampton or the Earl of Pembroke. 2-Rival poet (78-86): Maybe C. Marlowe or Chapman (Christopher Marlowe , George Chapman 3-The Dark Lady (127-152): is apparently the speaker’s mistress [black hair and dusky skin]. -The final two sonnets are allegorical treatments of Greek epigrams referring to the "little love-god" Cupid. - Sonnet 18 is the best known and most well-loved of all 154 sonnets. * straightforward in language and message
1-The stability and power of love and its ability to immortalize the beloved 2-The power of the speaker’s poem to defy time and last forever, carrying the beauty of the beloved down to future generations Elements of a Poem
2-Age + Poet’s biography
4-Speaker (persona- Voice)
5-Subject (surface meaning, topic)
6-Theme (deep meaning)
7-Point of view
8-Diction & Figurative language
* John Donne (1572-1631)
poet, satirist, lawyer and a preist
Rebelled against Elizabethan poetry
He wrote religious poetry ,Love poetry, Sonnets , Songs and Satires His poetry is noted for its language & style
Paradox – irony– metaphysical conceit...