Copyright 2005 by the Educational Publishing Foundation 1089-2680/05/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/1089-26126.96.36.199
Pursuing Happiness: The Architecture of Sustainable Change
University of California, Riverside
Kennon M. Sheldon
University of Missouri—Columbia
University of California, San Diego The pursuit of happiness is an important goal for many people. However, surprisingly little scientiﬁc research has focused on the question of how happiness can be increased and then sustained, probably because of pessimism engendered by the concepts of genetic determinism and hedonic adaptation. Nevertheless, emerging sources of optimism exist regarding the possibility of permanent increases in happiness. Drawing on the past well-being literature, the authors propose that a person’s chronic happiness level is governed by 3 major factors: a genetically determined set point for happiness, happiness-relevant circumstantial factors, and happiness-relevant activities and practices. The authors then consider adaptation and dynamic processes to show why the activity category offers the best opportunities for sustainably increasing happiness. Finally, existing research is discussed in support of the model, including 2 preliminary happiness-increasing interventions.
The pursuit of happiness holds an honored position in American society, beginning with the Declaration of Independence, where it is promised as a cherished right for all citizens. Today, the enduring U.S. obsession with how to be happy can be observed in the row upon row of popular psychology and self-help books in any major bookstore and in the millions of copies of these books that are sold. Indeed, many social contexts in the United States have the production of happiness and positive feelings as their primary purpose, and questions
Sonja Lyubomirsky, Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside;...