The Land and its People
Karnataka is not a homogeneous state as evidenced by its diversity. Kannada spoken in different regions of the state has been “colloquialized “, to such an extent that in many instances it is incomprehensible to one well versed in classical Kannada. Even more surprising is the presence of two districts in Karnataka that speak entirely different languages, which makes one wonder how they were classified under the linguistic state of Karnataka. These two regions are Tulu Nadu and Kodagu. Though Kannada is the official language, the spoken languages here differ a great deal from it. When the history of Tulu Nadu is studied, the reasons for it to be included in Karnataka become apparent.
The areas currently known as Dakshina Kannada and the coastal part of the adjacent district Uttara Kannada up to Gokarna are the historical Tulu Nadu. Many centuries ago the center of Tulu culture was probably in the Uttara Kannada (Honnavara), and Udupi as well as Mangalore were at the periphery. Today, however, Tulu is spoken only in the region below River Kalyanpur. The people living north of the river now speak Kannada. The reason for this is not clear in history. The region, although it maintained some form of independence, was always under the suzerainty of various rulers and dynasties that controlled Karnataka. Tulu Nadu was originally called Alvakheda (a second century C.E. reference from Greece calls it Olokhoira). Many historians agree that this is the region Emperor Ashoka referred to in his edicts as Satiyaputra, one of the four regions outside of his empire (the other three being Chola, Chera and Pandya kingdoms).
The political history of Tulu Nadu can be classified as follows:
1. The Alupa (Aluva) period
2. The Rayas of Vijayanagara period
3. The Nayaks of Keladi period
4. The Sultans of Mysore period
5. The British period.
6. Post Independence period.
The longest reigning dynasty of Tulu Nadu was the Alupas (Aluvas). Switching between Mangaluru and Udyavar, Barakuru and back to Mangaluru as their political centers, Alupas have the distinction of a continuous dynasty for more than one thousand years. They were the feudatories of the prominent dynasties of Karnataka. Kadamba dynasty of Banavasi was the earliest, under which the Alupas flourished. Later the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta, Chalukyas of Badami, Chalukyas of Kalyani, Hoysalas of Durasamudra and Rayas of Vijayanagara were the overlords. Alupas, however, were independent and their subordination was nominal at best. They ruled until the Vijayanagara kings totally dominated the Tulu Nadu from 14th to the 17th centuries. The region became extremely prosperous during Vijayanagara period with Barakuru and Mangaluru gaining importance. After the decline of Vijayanagara Empire, the Nayaks of Keladi (Ikkeri), who controlled much of Tulu Nadu, let it decline and internal skirmishes eventually led to it being controlled, at the end of 18th century, by the Sultans of Mysore, namely Haider Ali and Tippu Sultan. Mangalore played a prominent role in Tippu’s battles with the British. Tippu’s French alliance also led to some French presence in Mangalore. The British gained full control in 1801, after the defeat of Tippu in 1799. The British ruled the region with Madras as its headquarters. When the Indian independence was achieved in 1947, Tulu Nadu became part of Madras state. When the states were divided into linguistic states in the 1950’s, Tulu Nadu became part of Karnataka.
Much of the land known as Tulu Nadu was under sea eons ago. There is fossil evidence to support this. This might even have led to the legend of coastal Karnataka as a creation of Parashurama. Lord Parashurama was said to have had a dispute with the lord of the seas, Varuna. In a rage he threw his axe and claimed the coastal region from the sea, part of which is Tulu Nadu. Hence the region is referred to as “Parashurama Srishti.” Visits...