The Genesis of Nagaland State

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The Genesis of Nagaland State: For nearly a century, the British India government administered the Naga Hills as a part of Assam province. Beginning from 1886, the Naga Hills remained as a cultural museum, under the British suzerainty till 1947. After India's independence in 1947, it remained as a district in Assam till December 1957. The erstwhile Naga Hills of Assam and the erstwhile Tuensang Frontier Division of the North East Frontier Administration (NEFA) were brought together for the first time ever, as a separate administrative unit, known as the Naga Hills-Tuensang Area (NHTA) under the External Affairs Ministry of the Government of India, through a political agreement between the Naga People's Convention and the Government of India in 1957. NHTA was consisted of three administrative districts, namely, Kohima, Mokokchung and Tuensang. NHTA administration started functioning from December 1, 1957 to February, 1961. The Nagaland State Act was passed by the Indian Parliament in December 1962. But a transitional period of 3 years was envisaged as a fore-runner of the Statehood. An Interim Body was inaugurated on 18th February 1961 to function as the Defacto legislative assembly. An executive council consisting of 5 executive councillors was sworn in as the de-facto council of ministers. The transitional arrangement was envisaged as a fore-runner of the Statehood and to enable the Naga underground nationalist to negotiate with India for lasting peace and a satisfactory final political settlement of the Naga political problem. The first ever Naga government: The separate formation of a State for the Nagas was through political agreement between the Naga People's Convention and the Government of India in July 1960. The famous 16-Point political agreement brought about a very special and unique state. Special constitutional safeguards are provided in the Constitution under Article 371-A (1) to protect Naga identity and Naga way of life. The Indian Parliament cannot make any law in respect to religious and social practices of the Nagas, Naga customary law and procedures, administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according to the Naga customary law, ownership and transfer of land and its resources. The Government of India shall provide the necessary finances for the economic development of Nagaland and the cost of administration of the State. Each Naga tribe shall have the units of law making and administrative local self government in matters concerning the respective tribes and areas, namely: 1. The village council, 2. The range/area council and the tribal council. Each tribe shall have the Court's of Justice namely: 1. The village court, 2. The range court, 3. The tribal court. These are the Naga tribal institutions of local self government. Nagas must make necessary laws to give effect to all these special provisions provided in the above mentioned article and in the minutes of the 16-point agreement. The first democratic Naga government was ushered in January, 1964, through a general election. Thus, a beginning of a peoples' government was started all from the scratch. The political power which was long sought for by the Nagas became a reality. All the Naga tribes of Nagaland assembled to generate a political power in unity for a legitimate purpose to nurse and care for the State of Nagaland and to shape it according to their genius and aspirations all by themselves. The source of the political power comes from the people. And this is political democracy. Whatever political power that may be generated by man, unless guided and controlled and judged as much by the power of God, it will become corrupt and destructive and counter productive. Human nature is selfish, and political power becomes self-centred. The political power is concentrated in the hands of a few leaders only. The real makers of the political leaders are ignored and oppressed, the destructive manifestations of corruptions,...
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