These are the ten factors describing how the world is becoming “flat” or globally interconnected, thereby allowing businesses all over the world to compete on a more equal playing field. 1.The New Age of Creativity (the fall of the Berlin Wall)
This event “tipped the balance of power across the world toward those advocating democratic, consensual, free-market-oriented governance, and away from those advocating authoritarian rule with centrally planned economies.” 2.The New Age of Connectivity (the rise of the Web)
This event “enabled more people to communicate and interact with more other people anywhere on the planet than ever before.” 3.Work Flow Software
This force “enabled more people in more places to design, display, manage, and collaborate on business data previously handled manually,” resulting in more work to be able to flow “between companies and continents faster than ever.” 4.Uploading (open online collaboration and communities)
This force gave “newfound power [to] individuals and communities to send up, out, and around their own products and ideas, often for free, rather than just passively downloading them from commercial enterprises or traditional hierarchies,” thereby “reshaping the flow of creativity, innovation, political mobilization, and information gathering and dissemination.” 5.Outsourcing
This force meant “taking some specific, but limited, function that your company is doing in-house… and having another company perform that exact same function for you and then reintegrating their work back into your overall operation.” 6.Offshoring
This force meant being able to manufacture “the very same product in the very same way, only with cheaper labor, lower taxes, subsidized energy, and lower health-care costs” in another country, “then integrating it into [your] global supply chains.” 7.Supply-Chaining
This force allowed “[horizontal collaboration]—among suppliers, retailers, and customers—to create value,” resulting in “the adoption of common standards between companies” and more efficient “global collaboration.” 8.Insourcing
This force allowed “small companies could suddenly see around the world” and sell their products and services globally, while large companies could “act really small” and “customize products at the last minute.” 9.In-forming
This force gave “all the world’s knowledge, or even just a big chunk of it… to anyone and everyone, anytime, anywhere,” resulting in “becoming your own self-directed and self-empowered researcher, editor, and selector of entertainment, without having to go to the library or the movie theater or through network television.” 10.The Steriods (computers, the Internet, wireless, and personalization) This force, made up of specific technologies, supercharged all the other flatteners. The Triple Convergence
These are the three factors that came together to set off the flattening of the world. 1.Convergence I
This is the “convergence of the ten flatteners [into] a whole new platform. It is a global, Web-enabled platform for multiple forms of collaboration [that] enables individuals, groups, companies, and universities anywhere in the world to collaborate… without regard to geography, distance, time, and, in the near future, even language… —for the purposes of innovation, production, education, research, entertainment, and, alas, war-making—like no creative platform ever before.” 2.Convergence II
This is the “emergence of a large cadre of managers, innovators, business consultants, business schools, designers, IT specialists, CEOs, and workers.” 3.Convergence III
This is the creation of “horizontal collaboration and value-creation processes and habits that could take advantage of this new, flatter playing field.” The Great Sorting Out
These are the issues that will need to be resolved in the flat world. 1.Offshoring: Who is Exploiting Who?
This is where “the world starts to flatten out and value...