Ethiopian Civil Service College
SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF HISTORY FOR THE DEGREE OF
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
In writing this thesis I have received kindness, advice, encouragement, inspiration and succour from many different quarters. In ECSC I have been largely supported by the AHRB, and Somali State. I have benefited from several funds from Ogaden Democracy League without which, on more than one occasion, I would not have been able to complete this research. During my time here I have enjoyed a Pre-Research Linguistic Scholarship and an Honorary External Research Studentship, and assistance from the Eddington and Rouse Ball funds. For this support I am extremely grateful to the Master and Fellows of ECS College. I have also received generous and vital support for fieldwork expenses in Kenya and Ethiopia from the Smuts Memorial Fund; the Prince Consort and Thirlwall Fund; the Worts Travelling Scholars Fund; and the Holland Rose Fund. The dissertation is entirely the result of my own work, and includes nothing that is the outcome of any work done in collaboration. It does not exceed 80,000 words in length.
In the course of my archive research I was helped by the British Institute in East Africa, and its former Director Dr John Sutton, and assistant Director, Dr Shane Doyle. I am especially grateful to Shane Doyle for his help, hospitality and humour. In Ethiopia at the University of Addis Ababa I was able to use the excellent resources of the Library of the Institute of Ethiopian Studies. My work here was much aided by the co-operation of the Director of the Institute and its excellent staff. Members of the History Department were also helpful; in particular I should mention the help and hospitality of Dr Merid Wolde Aregay, Belete Bezuneh and Makonnen Tegegn. Tim Carmichael afforded me a great deal of professional assistance and advice in Addis, Harar and Jigjiga, and was a most generous and stimulating companion. I am much in his debt. In Addis, Harar and Jigjiga, Bedri Kebir was invaluable at the start of my research. Finally, I am deeply indebted to my research assistants in Jigjiga, Bashiir Xaaji and Bashiir Cabdullahi Caydaruus. The two Bashiirs were truly excellent research colleagues. Their intelligence and linguistic ability was outstanding. I wish them every success and I hope they enjoyed our work as much as I did. In Jigjiga I should also like to express my gratitude to all who agreed to be interviewed (their names are listed in the Bibliography), and to Somalis and Ethiopians who afforded me their unparalleled hospitality; in no particular order, Cadnan Abdirahman, Samuel Alemayehu, Maxamad Wacdi, Khalif Maxamad, Ismail Ahmed, and Abdikadir Mussa. In Addis Ababa, Canon Tony Andrew and Helen Andrews gave me a warm welcome and place to stay at the Chaplaincy of St Matthew’s Anglican Church. Alene Tesfa-Micheal, an old friend, was a welcome visitor from time to time.
Before Cambridge, at SOAS I was fortunate to be taught by several generous and patient scholars. Dr David Appleyard and Professor Richard Hayward first introduced me to the languages and culture of Ethiopia, and their enthusiasm for their subject made learning with them nothing but a pleasure. Dr David Anderson’s teaching of East African history made me realise what I’d been missing. He was also touchingly optimistic about my talents. Professor Louis Brenner was another who took interest in my progress and gave me much encouragement. In ECSC Addis Ababa I have gained intellectually from the small but perfectly formed Africanist community, in particular Professor John Iliffe and the members of the African History Group. Above all I have been overseen with the liberal but always keen eye of my supervisor Dr John Lonsdale. His demeanour inspires confidence which I think must be the greatest help to the student, his passion...