River of Africa
Surrounding landforms and availability of resources affect civilizations. The survival of countries in Africa relies on the Nile River. Physical landforms, climatic agriculture as well as ancient cultures and advances contribute to the effective utilization of the Nile. Various subdivisions and landforms along the coast of the river present tremendous opportunities for the Africans. Over time, the control of water intake and the substantial contribution of different climates create a vast diversity among the vegetation because of the proliferous soil by the Nile’s annual flood. The formation of ancient cultures, agriculture, and technologies significantly contributed to the developing countries adjacent the banks of the Nile.
The tributaries, landforms and various transportation opportunities assist the Africans. The tributaries connect several locations in Africa to provide the countries with water, exploration, and fertile land. The portion of the river in North Africa consists of three main sources: the White Nile, the Blue Nile, and the Atbara Rivers. The White Nile contains the largest mass of water so that during the dry season the river remains sustainable (Middleton vol.4). Western explorers investigated Africa because of the Blue Nile. The Blue Nile “is the link between the Mediterranean and the Deep Interior;” therefore, “the search for its source drew many Western explorers into Africa” (Murray 170). Among many of the smaller tributaries, the Atbara provides water in Ethiopia during the dry season. The Atbara “runs through the Ethiopian highlands during the wet seasons, but is dry from January to June” (Barrow).Therefore, it provides the amount of water suitable for the environment during that half of the year. The waters and soils of the Nile, the largest river in the world, supplies life to the barren desert and the river’s neighboring area. The two lands surrounding the Nile affect the flooding and climate zones. The black land “was the fertile land on the banks of the Nile” (Barrow). Black layer contains silt which contains layers of sediments left behind from the annual flood; moreover, the sediments made the land useable for agriculture. The red land “was a region of inhospitable desert” (Barrow). This region of desert protected the Egyptians from attack bordering the country. The headwaters of the flood water originate from the Ethiopian Highlands. Every summer, “rain in the Ethiopian highlands sent a barrage of water that overflowed the banks of the Nile” (Barrow). Without the precipitation in the Ethiopian Highlands, the river would cease to provide any nutritional soil; as a result, the prominent agricultural land would indefinitely vanish from existence, leaving a barren, tundra like land. The waters contain numerous beneficial obstacles environing the area. The small ridges of the central plateaus mean that “the lower courses of rivers are characterized by waterfalls and cataracts” (Murray 12). The cataracts and waterfalls redirect the course of the river, affecting the vegetation and farming around it. Settlement in Sudan depends on the river. The White Nile River flows “north across the Sudanese border into the Sudd, the world’s largest permanent swamp” (Middleton 3: 66). Even though half of the river’s water evaporates in the swamps, half of Sudan’s population lives among the banks of the subsidiary. The river’s surrounding features, as well as the tributaries and waterfalls, significantly contribute to the welfare of the country’s needs.
Flooding and climate influence the vegetation in the area, which remains vital for existence. Irrigation manipulates the growth and development of agriculture; moreover, irrigation systems contribute to improve the effective utilization of the river. Because of the dry climate and vast desert surrounding the river, the irrigation remains for life. The continents “unreliable rainfall and frequent drought make irrigation an essential tool...
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