The Effects of Herbicides on Paramecium

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The Effects of Herbicides on Aquatic Organisms

Anthony Cerda
John Jay Science and Engineering Academy

Abstract
In this experiment different herbicides were added to aquatic organisms. The organisms used were protists and bacteria which are microscopic organisms (Microorganisms). Herbicides are chemicals used to control certain plants such as weeds. Two hypotheses were tested in the experiment.H₁) The herbicides will affect the population growth rate of the microorganisms and H₂) The adding of herbicides will affect the general behavior of the microorganisms negatively.

Each species were separated into their own six containers, four of which had chemicals added into them while the other two were left as is to be a constant. All species had their population calculated every day and their behavior observed. The initial reactions to the chemicals were observed as well and noted down for further evidence. The results were placed on tables and graphs to compare species reaction.

Analysis of the data revealed that the first hypothesis was to be rejected and the first null hypothesis was actually correct. The paramecium population did not fall or rise unnaturally and kept at its regular rate of increase. The second hypothesis proved to be true and that the addition of the herbicide caused the paramecium to receive it as a negative stimulus and swam away from the liquid and if a too concentrated dose was given to the paramecium the organisms died.

Table of Contents
Page
Abstract………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Purpose/Hypothesis………………………………………………………………………….. 3 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….4&5 Materials…………………………………………………………………………………….... 6 Procedure……………………………………………………………………………………... 6 Results and Discussion………………………………………………………………………7&8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 Acknowledgements………………………………………………………………………….. 10 Bibliography…......................................................................................................................... 11 Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to see if herbicides have a harmful affect to aquatic microorganisms and the environment they live in.

Hypothesis 1: The herbicides will affect the population of the microorganisms. Null Hypothesis 1: The herbicides will have no affect on the population of the microorganisms.

Hypothesis 2: The adding of herbicides will affect the general behavior of the microorganisms negatively. Null Hypothesis: The adding of herbicides will have no effect on the general behavior of the microorganisms. Introduction

In the experiment, how the herbicides 2 4-D diamethylamine salt and Copper ammonia diacetate complex affect different marine organisms were observed. The marine organisms used were different species of protists and bacteria. Protists are eukaryotic (have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles) single celled microorganisms that normally live in moist wet conditions. The bacteria used were species of blue green algae (the name is misleading because actual algae is eukaryotic). Bacteria are single celled prokaryotes (don’t have a nucleus and

The protists used in the experiment were species of paramecium and algae. Though they are from the same kingdom they have little in common. This is because the characteristics of protists are very general and have many variations causing an extreme amount of different species that is estimated to be from 65,000 to 200,000. Normally protists are characterized into three groups, plant-like, animal-like, and fungus-like. This means that the protists has many things in common with the other kingdoms, but are missing characteristics to fit the criteria. Most of the time it’s because of the fact that they are unicellular and don’t have specified tissues.

The first person to look at protists and bacteria at a microscopic level was Antonie Van Leewuenhoek. In 1673 Leewuenhoek had invented a new microscope that was more advanced than ones...
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