The Effects of Abuse

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There are several different types of abuse and each type affects people differently. There is child abuse and spousal abuse, but there is also physcial and mental abuse. This paper will go over each type of abuse, how the abuse affects the person, how people can recover from abuse, and just some general information

To start off I will discuss spousal abuse and its affect on people. Surveys in the US and Canada have shown each year about 12 percent of all spouses push, grab, shove or slap their partner and one to three percent use more extreme violence (Dutton, 1992; Straus & Gelles, 1990). Also you need to keep in mind that these surveys depend on self-reporting and young adults who are low-income or immigrants usually don't take the time to take the surveys. There are many things that can lead to abuse in a relationship such as social pressures that create stress, personality pathologies like poor impulse control and drug or alcohol abuse (Gelles, 1993; McKenry et al., 1995; O'Leary, 1993; Straus &Yiodanis, 1996; Yllo, 1993). Another critical factor is the history of child neglect or mistreatment. Obviously if a child is exposed to a lot of spousal abuse, physical or mental abuse, or even sexual abuse can increase the risk of that person being abusive when they're older or possibly even being a victim. There are two forms of spouse abuse that can be seen when a relationship is looked at closer (Johnson, 1995). The first form is called common couple violence in which one or both partners engage in outbursts of verbal and physical attack (Berger, 2003). This common couple violence involves yelling, insults, and physical abuse but they are not part of the campaign of dominance. Women are just as likely to commit this type of abuse as well as men but sometimes both partners get involved in the arguments. For the most part a couple involved in common couple violence gradually learn to resolve conflicts in a more constructive way either on their own or with a counselor. However there are some couples that can evolve into worse abuse.

The second form of abuse is patriarchal terrorism in which there is almost no hope for the couple to get out of it (Johnson, 1995). Patriarchal terrorism is when one partner, almost always the man, uses a different variety of ways to isolate, degrade and punish the other partner (Berger, 2003). This form of abuse can lead to the battered-wife syndrome in which the woman is physically abused as well as psychologically and socially broke down. Patriarchal terrorism can become even more extreme the longer the relationship lasts. Every time an act of abuse occurs it helps the man's feeling of control and adds to the woman's feeling of helplessness. There are two main reasons why a woman stays in a systematically abusive relationship. The first reason being she has been conditioned to the abuse step by step and the second reason is she has been isolated from those who might encourage her to leave (Berger, 2003). If the couple does have children they can be taken "hostage" by the man if the woman threatens to leave. In a patriarchal terrorism relationship the woman cannot break the cycle of abuse on her own. The recognization of this type of abuse has led law enforcement agencies to have a tougher approach to dealing with these situations. Serious abuse has been found to be more common in younger couples in common-law marriages. The primary prevention that would help decrease abuse in the long run would be educating children about abuse. Also counteracting the poverty and deprivation that underlies abuse and treating alcohol abuse would help in decreasing the amount of abuse (Berger, 2003). The 1999 General Social Survey on Victimization that was done in Canada produced a insight to the extent of spousal abuse in Canada. There were 26,000 men and women who have suffered some soft of spousal abuse that participated in this survey. The survey showed that the violence...
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