The Effect of Enzymes on Apple Juice Production

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The Effect of Enzymes on Apple Juice Production

Biology
Period 6

Background Info
The purpose of this experiment was to determine which enzyme or the combination of the two enzymes makes the most apple juice from applesauce. We did his by, mixing 10 drops of an enzyme (cellulose/pectinase/both) into a few tablespoons of applesauce. We then left the rest to nature, and watched the liquid funnel out for 10 minutes. Lastly, we recorded our data.

The cell wall is a complicated structure containing both cellulose and pectin. Pectin is found in the cell walls of plants and is also specifically found concentrated near the skin and core of fruit. It is what keeps the fruit together and prevents it from getting mushy. Cellulose is an organic compound also found in the structure of plant cells, in the outer cell wall. It is basically the structure of the cell wall.

An enzyme is a biological catalyst meaning it speeds up chemical reactions in living things. Enzymes are made from amino acids and are proteins. The purpose of speeding up chemical reactions is that the cell is able to build things and take things apart quickly and efficiently. All the work carried out in a cell is carried out by enzymes. However if an enzyme is introduced to the wrong temperature, pH, or concentration, they denature, and are no longer usable. Different enzymes break down and build different things. It all depends on the shape of the enzyme. The common term for the way enzymes work is the Lock and Key model. The Lock and Key model compares enzymes and its substrate to a lock and a key. A substrate is the biological molecule that the enzymes work on. During this process, the enzyme grabs or "locks" on to the substrate at a special area called the active site. The active site is very specially shaped and only will work on substrates that match. Once everything is all set in place, the enzyme breaks down the substrate or combines it with something else to make something new. When this process is over, even though the substrate was changed the enzyme stays exactly the same and goes to do the whole process over again. This way the body won't waste as much energy on making enzymes over and over again when it can just make a few and save the energy to make more products instead.

The enzymes we used in this experiment had many functions. The first enzyme we used was pectinase. The function of pectinase was to break down its substrate pectin, in the applesauce so it would hopefully produce apple juice. Pectin is a polysaccharide, so by adding pectinase the units are broken down into monosaccharides. In the same way cellulase is the enzyme used to break down cellulose. The function of cellulase in this experiment was to see if the breakdown of cellulose affected the production of apple juice. Cellulose is also a polysaccharide, and must also be broken down into single monomers. The main purpose of both these enzymes in this experiment was to see which substrate if broken down would allow the applesauce to produce more apple juice.

II. Statement of Problem and Hypothesis

Problem:
What enzyme produces the most apple juice?

Hypothesis:
If pectinase is added to 2 tablespoons of applesauce, then it will produce the most apple juice compared to cellulose. I know this because is also used for clarifying/producing apple juice in the first place. Also, its substrate pectin is what holds the cell wall together, therefore the enzyme that breaks it down (pectinase) must produce the most apple juice.

III. Experimental Design

Independent Variable: Enzymes (pectinase, cellulase, combination of both cellulase and pectinase)

Dependent Variable: Amount of apple juice produced

Constants:
• Amount of applesauce
• Stirring time
• Amount of each enzyme (pectinase, cellulase, both)
• Observing Time (or time taken for apple juice to funnel out) • Water temperature
• Funnel...
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