The Application of the Input Hypothesis and the Affective Filter Hypothesis to Independent Colleges English Listening Teaching Chapter Ⅰ INTRODUCTION
In each language, listening plays a big role in our daily life, let alone English. Listening occupies the top position in the communication, for we always get the input first and then produce the output. Most of the information about the world we gain is through listening. Listening also occupies the central role in language learning. It is the first step for the learners to learn language. Krashen stressed that listening activity is essential to language acquisition, for language acquisition is realized through listening comprehension. Whereas oral expression is the result of language acquisition not the cause. It is actually the outcome appearing after learners’ language competence is improved through comprehensible language input. Accordingly, nearly all kinds of the English tests have the listening part, among which the most important and popular test in college period is College English Band 4. College student is required to pass College English Band 4 in most colleges because it stands for an education quality image for a college, and the society thinks highly of it. Especially after the reformation of College English Band 4 in 2006, the listening part of new one accounts for 35% instead of 20% in the previous test. This undoubtedly worsens the already grave situation of the independent college students whose English ability is below average. Meanwhile, this is also a challenge for college English teachers who are responsible to help them improve their English ability and get better grades in the College English Band 4. This paper presents a comparative study on two classes lasting for one academic period from March 2010 to June 2010. The author attempts to apply the Input Hypothese and the Affective Filter Hypothesis to the independent college English listening teaching, reform the traditional input way in one class (experimental class), and compare the result to the other class (control class), in order to see whether the experimental class will do much better in the post-test, with the hope of offering some enlightenment and consult to changing the present situation of the independent college English listening teaching and improving the listening competence of students from this kind of colleges. 1.2
Krashen’s Input Hypothesis and Affective Filter Hypothesis 126.96.36.199
Definition of the Input Hypothesis
Krashen once stated, “The input hypothesis runs counter to our usual pedagogical approach in second and foreign language teaching. As Hatch has pointed out, our assumption has been that we first learn structures, then practice using them in communication and this is how fluency develops. The input hypothesis says the opposite. It says we acquire by ‘going for meaning’ first and as a result, we acquire structure!” (Principle and Practice in Second Language Acquisition, 1982) Later, Krashen enlarged on his opinion, “humans acquire language in only one way – by understanding message, or by receiving comprehensible input.” (the Input Hypothesis). He stressed that the comprehensible input is a necessary requisite to acquire language, and the input material should be slightly more difficult than learners’ present language level. Then he put forward the Input Hypothesis. The Input Hypothesis claims that an important “condition for language acquisition to occur us that the acquirer understand (via hearing or reading) input language that contains structure ‘a bit beyond’ his or her current level of competence…If an acquirer is at stage or level i, the input he or she understands should contain i+1” (1981a:100). In other words, the language which learners are exposed to should be just far enough beyond their current competence that they can understand most of it but still be challenged to make progress. The corolalry to this is...
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