Thai History, Rattanakosin Kingdom

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  • Topic: Chakri Dynasty, Monarchy of Thailand, Bangkok
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  • Published : March 10, 2013
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Rattanakosin
Kingdom

Apittha Sudtisongtum (Aire)
Student ID: 5280572
Apittha Sudtisongtum (Aire)
Student ID: 5280572

The Kingdom of Rattanakosin

Thailand has one of the most important 800 years old history merging mortal interests around the world. It was known as Siam, สยาม till 1939 and then as Thailand, “The Land of the Free”. Thailand can possess the distinction of being the only country that has never been colonized in Southeast Asia. Thailand history divided into five periods, the rule of different kingdoms throughout the centuries (Thaialanddaddy, n.d.).

After the destruction of Ayutthaya, the Thais started to regroup again by Tarksin who established the capital city in Thonburi and later became the king of the kingdom of Thonburi. He was eventually executed in 1782, which was the end of the Thonburi period. At that time, the present day Chakri dynasty was established. King Ramathibodi ascended the throne and was named the Great King Rama I or Pra-Bath-Som-Dej-Pra-Put-Tha-Yod-Fah-Chu-La-Lok_ma-Ha-Raj. He was the king of the Chakri Dynasty. He ruled the country from 1782 to 1809.

After his coronation, he decided move the capital city across to the east bank of the river since it offered better security against enemy attack and Thonburi was unsuitable to serve as the capital due to its limited space for expansion. Additionally, the palace located on the bank of the Chao Phraya River was risked to the erosion and collapsed by the river. After considering both advantage and disadvantage from a military strategic and economic point of view, he then decided to move the capital city to the new site. He erected the city’s sacred foundation post as well as transferred the Lord Buddha’s relics to a temporary shrine. After the foundation post was officially erected, King Rama I moved to the new capital and stayed in his palace temporarily (Rattanakosin Period, n.d).

During King Rama I’s reign, he built the Grand Palace, and installed the Emerald Bhuddha in the Chapel Royal following its completion. He undertook the construction of many other palaces including Dusit Mahaprasat Hall, Pimarnrattaya Hall, Ammarin Vinichchai Hall, and Chakkrabhat Priman Hall. Furthermore, he built Wat Phra Kaew, the temple of the Emerald Buddha, within the outer compound, east of the Grand Palace and Wat Po placing with 394 old Buddhist images, which were collected from every partd of the country, around the main chapel (Rattanakosin Period, n.d).

In ruling the country, King Rama I was very democratic. He always listened to people’s ideas because he believed that the kingdom was belonged to everyone in the country. Thus, people should have their voices and helped in running the country too. King Rama I developed and adopted the administrative system from Ayutthaya to the Rattanakosin kingdom and also formed a special advisory council by combining viziers, civil servants and military personnel. Moreover, he revised and promulgating new law codes, reinstating the court ceremonies and imposing discipline on the Buddhist monkhood (King Rama I, n.d.).

After King Rama I was passed away, his son, MahaUparaja became the second king of Chakri dynasty and was named King Phra Buddha LertlaNapalai or King Rama II. During his reign, he started the custom of appointing senior princes to supervise over the different department of state. According to Welcome To Thailand, “King Rama II was the best remembered though for his interest in arts. Arts, books and poem were very flourished during his reign (King Rama II, n.d).

During King Rama II’s reign, the country was in peace with the neighboring countries. Thus, King Rama II thought that it was the good time to build up the country and picked up what his father had left off. In addition, he also improved the administrative system promoted religious, culture and introduced land reforms. In the lad reform, it stated that “it was compulsory for anyone owning...
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