Dr.ABHAYA KUMAR SINGH
Dept. of Defence & Strategic Studies
K. S. Saket Post Graduate College,
(Dr. R. M.L. Awadh University) AYODDHYA, FAIZABAD.
Concept of Terrorism:
Terrorism is an age old phenomenon but has acquired new dimensions in view of technological and societal changes. The nature, targets and rhetoric of terrorism have changed dramatically since the end of the cold war and the emergence of globalisation. Terrorism today, has changed from being a vehicle of intra-state violence to a transnational phenomenon, where loosely organized international network of terrorists use mercenaries, organized crimes cartels, sophisticated weaponry and modern communication to operate from, through and into various countries. To quote Mr. Jaswant Singh, Four democratizations: of easy access to rapid communication, to technology, to easy to travel and a democratization of access to weapon of destruction, 1 has largely been responsible for the increasing trend towards transnational terrorism.
With the development in science, technology and communication knowledge, terrorists and states sponsoring terrorism, are believed to be gaining access to non-conventional weapons of mass destruction like nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Termed as weapons of mass destruction, these are the dream of any terrorist group. One of the most violent and horrendous dimensions of transnational terrorism using modern systems, non-conventional weapons and having transnational linkages was seen on September11, 2001.The single act has brought a conceptual change in the terrorism warfare theory where ‘Idea terrorism’ has been used. 2 Radical changes have taken place in the ways in which terrorist acts have been committed against the most powerful country of the world without using conventional terrorism weapons. They used equipments, machines and tools of terror of modern developed societies as weapons by converting passenger planes laden with aviation fuel into a bomb and converting into a guided missile against World Trade Center/Pentagon (symbol of US economic and military strengths).With a single coordinated action lasting less than an hour, they caused multi level damages and achieved several objectives- loss of life and property, loss of image of the target nation, economic recession and layoffs causing unemployment. One of the most perceptible things that happened was the change in the American way of thinking. It caused social unrest characterised by racial hatred and riots against people of particular origin/community, and the media gave it worldwide publicity for several months. Such an event would have unprecedented ramifications and response patterns. Today, terrorists and terrorism have assumed the stature of a full blown ‘Frankenstein Monster’.3
Terrorism is a strategy based on psychological impact. In most cases, their capability is rather slim.4 Terrorism wreaks violence, inflicting pain and suffering that destroys perpetrators and others. Terrorism induces fear and increases poverty, suffering and loss of life with no apparent gain to any one. Instead of offering or seeking solutions, terrorism looks to destruction as an answer. In acts of terrorism, human values are lost.
There are five factors which causes the terrorism: the first factor is terrorism is caused by frustration and desperation. When people are desperate to achieve a stated goal and fail, the desperation brings up violence in them. The second factor is belief in a non-verifiable concept of merit and heaven: “If I die fighting for God, then I will go to heaven, because God wants this act to happen.” The third is a staunch belief that “my way is the only way.” The fourth factor is ignoring human values in order to achieve a goal and fifth, the lack of respect for...