Indian Foreign policy pre-dates India’s Independence. This Policy has come a long way from the pre-independence period ‘copy the west’ and ‘don’t copy the west ideology’ to the post-independence turning point decisions like restarting dialog with Pakistan. It lays its emphasis on principles like fostering cordial relations, solving conflicts by peaceful means, Sovereignty and equality of nations and Independence of thought and action. As a member of the Non-align Movement or NAM, it strongly advocates general and complete disarmament (nuclear disarmament is topmost priority).
This Policy defines the foundation of India’s relationship with countries like the United States and China with the help of five main principles: - Conventional Security, Economic Growth, Energy Security, Prestige Security and Nuclear Capability and Nonproliferation. Over the years India’s relationship with China has improved owing to the joint efforts of both the countries. China has strived to ensure that the border conflicts do not hamper the trade interests of the both the countries equally. India’s relationship with the United States however spells out a completely different story. The relationship has moved from hostile at the time when India chose to tilt towards the Soviet Union as a reaction to the United States’ affection towards Pakistan. This scenario completely changed after President Bill Clinton’s visit to India in 2000.
The major limitation of the Indian Foreign Policy is that the central government often excludes the views of the general public considering they are poorly informed about foreign issues. Although they do take into account the public reaction to the policy while framing it. Even the state institutions have limited say while framing the policy.
The business class and the media have a considerable impact on the Foreign policies formed. The rise of China as a business rival acted as a catalyst in increasing the engagement of the...