Techniques and Tools of Evaluation
Tools and techniques are required to gather information. These should be valid, reliable and usable. Interpretation of gathered information needs to be given in numerical scores, grades as well as in qualitative terms. Judgement should be made not just on scholastic aspects but also on co-scholastic aspects which depend to a large extent on the learning ambience and learning culture of an institution. As far as interpretation is concerned, attainment can be mearsured in terms of three levels. First is with reference to the learner himself/herself and the current status of progress. The learning gaps need to be identified and marked upon. The second level is to identify the status of the learner with reference to his/her peer group. (Percentile Rank) The third level is with reference to the criteria. The criteria means the expected level of learning keeping in view the required skills. An evaluation tool is a means of appraisal scientifically designed to evaluate or measure what is required to be evaluated or measured Following factors need to be considered while using a tool: • • Balance Fairness • • Objectivity Validity • • Discrimination Speed • • Relevance Reliability
Specific Tools Anecdotal Record Rating Scale Aptitude Inventories Teacher Made and standarised Tests • These are used to measure in numerical terms the attainment of students in various school subjects.
• It is used to assess past behaviour of the students.
• It is used to classify opinions and judgements regarding situations, objects etc.
• They are used to measure the potential performance and special ability of students.
• They are used to assess the expression of the inner feelings of individuals through questionnaires etc.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
Techniques of Evaluation consist of test and other items for measuring growth in particular outcomes of learning. Tools are the instruments used for measuring the learning outcome such as question papers, observationschedules, rating scale, checklists etc. For example, while observation is a technique a checklist is a tool. 1 Observation
Information can be best collected about children in 'natural' settings. Some information is based on teachers' observations about learners in the course of teaching. Other information is based on planned and purposeful observation of students on activities/tasks. 1.1 Advantages of Observation • • • • • Various aspects of personality development can be assessed through observations. Can be used to assess individuals as well as groups. Assessments can be made during varying time periods. Evidence of child's performance/knowledge is based on an 'on-the-spot record'. Over time, detailed observations of behaviour as well as interests,challenges,-patterns/trends emerge which allow teachers to create a comprehensive picture/view of the child.
1.2 Concerns Regarding Observation • • • • Avoid arriving at inferences/interpretations or jumping to conclusions. It is important to take down more than what is actually seen. Dependent on the skill of the observer which determines 'what' is observed. Requires sensitivity and unobtrusiveness in the way the observation is done. Observations to be made over a period of time, across different activities and settings.
1.3 Suggestions for implementation of Observation Recording details that not only describe the actions but reveal how a child feels about what she/he is doing, details on how she/he is doing something as well as when she/he does it, the quality of her/his interrelationship with people and materials, and what he/she says etc. Noting comments about the child's behaviour in parentheses based on processes which can be inferred at a later point of time.
Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation
Checklists for observation in various subjects areas:
1.4.1 Using a Checklist for Observation in English (e.g....
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