Eylül Sözen NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
The Reference Grammar Project, which is conducted by Saymaz and Sözen probing five different Teacher Reference books, does mainly aim to help those, who have intention of further research and examination about nouns and pronouns, find relative sources for their own teaching sessions. Following the basic examination of the subject “Nouns and Pronouns” (Chapter A), the teacher reference books that have been utilized will be put in comparison and evaluated under four distinctive headings (Chapter B), which are; * Respective objective and aim
* Target population
* Content processed
* Organisational planning
Chapter A: NOUNS AND PRONOUNS
1- Definition of Nouns
As universally suggested, a noun describes a place, person or thing in addition to the fact that nouns might be used for expressing concepts, qualities, organisations, communities and events, which is provided by Parrott (2004) in his book Grammar for English Language Teachers. 2- Categorisation of Nouns
There are several classes, which are accepted to be available in categorisation of nouns such as; 2.1- Common and Proper Nouns
According to Lester and Beason (2005), proper nouns represent unique entities whereas common nouns differentiate in the sense that they utter a class of entities, which are not specific. 2.2- Singular, Plural and Collective Nouns
Asserted by Swan (2005), nouns that state single and one entity are called as singular nouns. By generally adding ‘-s’ to a singular countable noun, plural forms are created. Plural case marker ‘-s’ may vary depending on the syllable final sound as can be observed in following examples; Plural of nouns ending in consonant + y, is made by changing –y to –i and adding –es to the noun: baby-babieslady-ladiesparty-parties
However plural of nouns ending in vowel + y, does not experience any change in the discourse of –y and only takes –s. day-daysboy-boysdonkey-donkeys
Plural of nouns ending in -sh, -ch, -s, -x, -o or -z; is made by only adding –es at the end of the word. church-churchescrush-crushesbox-boxeshero-heroes
Collective nouns utter to a group of entities and represent more than one member in spite of the singular inflection of the noun. Fowler (2004) puts forward that measurement and figures ending in –s may also be singular when the quantity is a unit: Three years is a long time to wait.
Three-fourths of the library consists of reference books.
2.3- Countable and Non-countable Nouns
Swan (2005) claims that countable nouns refer to separate object, ideas and people that can be used with numerals while non-countable nouns are structurally masses without certain boundaries as liquids, abstract qualities and collections. 2.4- Abstract and Concrete Nouns
Concrete nouns refer to physical entities that can be observed by at least one of the five senses; yet abstract noun are out of physical dimension and generally conceptual ideas. 3- Definition of Pronouns
Pronouns are substitution for noun phrases in order not to experience repetitive usage of the same noun. 4- Categorisation of Pronouns
4.1- Personal Pronouns
These are the ones that replace proper nouns and nouns, which signify people or a group of animate objects. Eylül takes the pencil.
She takes the pencil.
4.2- Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns are used with reflexive actions or states that subject goes through. Ali gives himself enough time to study for his exams.
4.3- Indefinite Pronouns
Indefinite pronouns take part in the replacment of nouns that are under general categories of people and things. An indefinite pronoun is the one that does not refer to any specificity: Nobody is perfect.
Anyone can do it.
Fowler and Aaron (2004) suggest that there are a number of indefinite pronouns, which are used with plural verbs depending on the plurality of the referent noun: All of the...