Teabag: Citation and Participants

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PSY120 Practical Report 1 28th October 1999

Writing style notes 1.8 August 1999 © Phil Gee

Effect of Winding-up Duration on Jaw Clenching
Julie R. Teabag
Department of Psychology, University of Plymouth

Each point below is numbered and these numbers may be referred to by markers when correcting your work. For example, if a marker writes 5 on your report you should look it up here. In this case the marker would be telling you to double space your work. The marker may also (optionally) indicate the severity of the problem by placing a letter next to the number. ÔAÕ means Ôvery importantÕ, ÔBÕ means ÔimportantÕ, ÔCÕ means Ôto be corrected but not importantÕ and ÔDÕ means Ôadvisory onlyÕ - e.g. 8.2 B would indicate that you should think up your own title and that doing this is (at least moderately) important. If you see PR written next to a point number that means you made the same mistake in a previous report and are being penalised more heavily for it this time. G en e r a l P o i n t s : 1) A report should tell a story. It explains why you carried out the study, what you did, what you found, and what your findings imply. As it is also a technical document you must use precise language. 2) The format given here approximates APA (American Psychological Association) style but has been adapted slightly to suit undergraduate practical reports. The definitive guide to APA style is the fourth edition of the ÒPublication Manual of the American Psychological SocietyÓ (available in the library). However, the Publication Manual is intended for people submitting articles to journals whereas we want you to (2.1) produce work that looks like the finished product. 3) This handout gives pages from a fictional article on the left of each page and notes on the right. For your reports you should not leave every second page blank! 4) Read the section on linguistic usage in the course handbook. 5) Double space your work to allow room for markers comments.

The effect of winding-up task duration on rate of jaw clenching was studied in 186 first year psychology undergraduates. Each participant carried out complex computer based tasks for either 10 min, 20 min, or 30 min. Sessions were recorded on video and the number of jaw clenches was determined by independent observers. The rate for the 30 min group was significantly higher than that of the 10 min and 20 min groups (p < .01). This suggests that winding-up duration is a determinant of jaw clenching and implies that people with weak teeth should avoid statistical software. 97 words

Intr oduction
Few people go through life without encountering situations that produce feelings of anger or frustration. In a review of the literature on anger and frustration Smith, Jones, and Goolie (1995) concluded that human beings would be much happier if it were possible to modify or avoid situations that produce these feelings. However, Killjoy (1996) has argued that it would not be possible to identify and eliminate anger and frustration provoking situations because anger and frustration are subjective sensations that we can not measure directly. An alternative approach might be to adapt the analysis of depression developed by Wiseacre and Smartalec (Smartalec & Wiseacre, 1960; Wiseacre, 1953; Wiseacre & Smartalec, 1965). They reasoned that both feeling depressed and the wearing of a miserable expression were the result of certain types of environments or histories. Measuring the frequency with which people use phrases such as “I am so depressed” or the frequency of miserable facial expressions could therefore constitute a valid measure of depression. In a series of experiments they found a strong relationship between these measures and exposure to materials that were rated as depressing by a set of independent judges

6) In general, use the past tense (ÒBloggs showedÓ) or present perfect tense (Òresearchers have shownÓ) for all sections of the report except for the Discussion. (6.1) In the...
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