Writing style notes 1.8 August 1999 © Phil Gee
Effect of Winding-up Duration on Jaw Clenching
Julie R. Teabag
Department of Psychology, University of Plymouth
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The effect of winding-up task duration on rate of jaw clenching was studied in 186 first year psychology undergraduates. Each participant carried out complex computer based tasks for either 10 min, 20 min, or 30 min. Sessions were recorded on video and the number of jaw clenches was determined by independent observers. The rate for the 30 min group was significantly higher than that of the 10 min and 20 min groups (p < .01). This suggests that winding-up duration is a determinant of jaw clenching and implies that people with weak teeth should avoid statistical software. 97 words
Few people go through life without encountering situations that produce feelings of anger or frustration. In a review of the literature on anger and frustration Smith, Jones, and Goolie (1995) concluded that human beings would be much happier if it were possible to modify or avoid situations that produce these feelings. However, Killjoy (1996) has argued that it would not be possible to identify and eliminate anger and frustration provoking situations because anger and frustration are subjective sensations that we can not measure directly. An alternative approach might be to adapt the analysis of depression developed by Wiseacre and Smartalec (Smartalec & Wiseacre, 1960; Wiseacre, 1953; Wiseacre & Smartalec, 1965). They reasoned that both feeling depressed and the wearing of a miserable expression were the result of certain types of environments or histories. Measuring the frequency with which people use phrases such as “I am so depressed” or the frequency of miserable facial expressions could therefore constitute a valid measure of depression. In a series of experiments they found a strong relationship between these measures and exposure to materials that were rated as depressing by a set of independent judges
6) In general, use the past tense (ÒBloggs showedÓ) or present perfect tense (Òresearchers have shownÓ) for all sections of the report except for the Discussion. (6.1) In the...