Task-Based Learning

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In this essay , we are going to talk about Task-Based Language Learning (TBLL) or else known as Task-Based Instruction(TBI) and how it implies in the classroom .Task-Based Learning started to gain some currency from 1996 when Jane Willis published a book entitled :A Framework for Task-Based Learning (Longman) . But though , Willis (1996) suggested that before the 80’s that the model of PPP ( Presentation , Practice and Performance) was the traditional way of learning and teaching activity . This model is based on the presentation which is before practice and in the end of this activity ,the result or else outcome is called performance . According to Willis (1996) ,the first change on the learning and teaching activity was proposed by N. Prabhu in his Communicative Teaching Project in Bangalore which was including both primary and secondary schools in 1987. From that time , the technique of using tasks for teaching became popular on the second language acquisition (SLA) .Based on an article of Richards & Rodgers (1986:224) ,”it first appeared in the vocational training practice of the 50’s .Task focused here first derived from training design concepts of the military regarding new military technologies and occurational specialties of the period . Task analysis initially focused on solo psyhometer tasks for which little communication or collaboration was involved .” But no matter about what is said about it , it is completely understandable that Task-Based Learning gained a huge piece in the field of methodology and it has been developed step by step through the years . Additionally , Willis (1996) said that Task-Based Learning does not only work in multi-lingual teaching environments but also in the mono-lingual classes where teacher and students are working together . But what is Task-Based Learning ?

First of all ,we should better define the term “task” .According to Prabhu (1987) . “A task is an activity which requires learners to arrive at an outcome from given information through some process of thought ,and which allow teachers to control and regulate that process .” In her book , Willis (1996 ,p54) states the term of “task” but not only what is a “task” but also what is not “task” . Based on what she said : “Tasks do not conclude activities which involve language used for practice or display ,such as “Describe the picture using the words and phrases from the list below” ,where there is no outcome or purpose other than practice of pre-specified language .” After I have read many definitions about what it is “task” ,I concluded that the target language is used ,though all these activities ,by the learner for communicative purpose in order to outcome . The Task-Based learning is separated in three steps of task and they are classified as it follows. The first step of task is the Pre-task .Here ,at this step , the teacher is the guide of the classroom and the person who introduces the topic ,gives the instructions for the task and the goal of the task . According to Richards & Rodgers (1986) ,the learners are these who must think on the topic ,bring out the vocabulary and make the relation between the language and the topic . But ,in order to make the work easier for the students ,the teacher gives the words and phrases which the students will need for the task . Although , the teacher does not teach something new . In order to make an example ,if that is necessary of course , the teacher can give to the students a reading or listening aid . The next step of Task-Based Learning is the Task . Here , the learners must follow a task cycle which may be considered as the time of preparation before they have the opportunity to perform or produce what they know .At this step , learners are working in pairs or groups in their target language . They must use the target language as spontaneously as they can in order to succeed the aim of the task cycle . The teacher ,from his part , tries to motivate the students to use only...
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