System Approach

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  • Topic: Systems theory, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Complex system
  • Pages : 6 (1272 words )
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  • Published : July 8, 2011
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The Systems Approach
Requirement in Principle of Management

Submitted by:
Jenine Faye Bernardino
Michelle Calles
Linden Balaoro
Jerome Bereber
Spencer Aro

BSBA MM 1-2

Submitted to: Mrs. Laila P. Chavez
Submitted on: January 12, 2011

Page 1

Table of Contents

Introduction ……………………………………………………….. Page 3 Systems Theory ……………………………………………………….. Page 4 Elements in Business System ……………………………………………… Page 5 The 7-S Model ……………………………………………………….. Page 6 Definition of Terms …………………………………………………………Page 7 References ………………………………………………………. Page 8 Acknowledgement ………………………………………………………. Page 9

Page 2

Introduction

The systems approach developed out of the 1950s and 1960s focus on language laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia presentations and the use of the computer in instruction. Rooted in the military and business world, the systems approach involved setting goals and objectives, analyzing resources, devising a plan of action and continuous evaluation/modification of the program.

The systems approach to management is a concept which views a company as an interconnected purposive system that consists of several business sections. It is a management approach which enables the leadership to see the company as a unified part or a major section of the larger outside corporate environment. Even a small activity in a part has a substantial effect on other sections in the company. Such a system may be biological, physical or social; and may enable the management to efficiently determine the long-term goals of the company. The systems approach states that for realizing the operations of an entity, it is essential to see the entity as a complete system.

The systems approach to management is based on general system theory – the theory that says that to understand fully the operation of an entity, the entity must be viewed as a system. This requires understanding the interdependence of its parts.

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Systems Theory
 
The Systems Approach
The term "systems" is derived from the Greek word "synistanai," which means "to bring together or combine." The term has been used for centuries. Components of the organizational concepts referred to as the "systems approach" has been used to manage armies and governments for millennia. However, it was not until the Industrial Revolution of the 19th and 20th centuries that formal recognition of the "systems" approach to management, philosophy, and science emerged (Whitehead 1925, von Bertalanffy 1968). As the level of precision and efficiency demanded of technology, science, and management increased the complexity of industrial processes, it became increasingly necessary to develop a conceptual basis to avoid being overwhelmed by complexity. The systems approach emerged as scientists and philosophers identified common themes in the approach to managing and organizing complex systems. Four major concepts underlie the systems approach: Specialization: A system is divided into smaller components allowing more specialized concentration on each component. Grouping: To avoid generating greater complexity with increasing specialization, it becomes necessary to group related disciplines or sub-disciplines. Coordination: As the components and subcomponents of a system are grouped, it is necessary to coordinate the interactions among groups. Emergent properties: Dividing a system into subsystems (groups of component parts within the system), requires recognizing and understanding the "emergent properties" of a system; that is, recognizing why the system as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts. For example, two forest stands may contain the same tree species, but the spatial arrangement and size structure of the individual trees will create different habitats for wildlife species. In this case, an emergent property of each stand is the wildlife habitat....
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