Sustainable Tourism

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By critically discussing the western theories on the policy-making process, this paper intends to adopt the case study of Hainan to specifically analyze its state-initiated plan for regional tourism development. Yu Hong (2011) The economic and tourism development story of Hainan has now been questioned and criticized with little involvement by the local minority community and their little gains from local tourism boom.

“Under this top-down tourism planning, a triangular axis of the central government, various ministries and powerful external force such as property developers has overwhelmingly dominated regional tourism development in Hainan and enjoyed the majority of economic benefits contributed by tourism growth”(Yu Hong, 2011). For the local community in Hainan, especially the minority groups, the opportunities to participate in the decision-making process are seriously inadequate and weak due to poor education and lack of knowledge. It is necessary for local citizens to be educated with regard to tourism development and improve their policy participation ability. In order to achieve the sustainable tourism in Hainan, the policy-making process needs to get involve all the relevant stakeholders, consider their various interests, and achieve a collaborative tourism planning. Normally, these parties have dramatically different views on the direction and goals of regional tourism development. Any process of formulation that is dominated by the powerful central ministries, local governments and property developers is bound to result in a tourism plan which is unsustainable and doomed to failure. In seeking to achieve maximum socioeconomic benefits and improvement of welfare for the disadvantaged local residents and minimize the negative impacts they incur from, there is a need for a sound tourism development plan based on the interests of the local community rather than those of the government and property developers. Unfortunately, with this current new...
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